Location: Exotic and Invasive Weeds Research
Title: Scientific Review of Great Basin Wildfire Issues Authors
|Drew, Jeremy - RESOURCE CONCEPTS|
Submitted to: Nevada Bighorn
Publication Type: Popular Publication
Publication Acceptance Date: April 29, 2008
Publication Date: October 25, 2008
Citation: Clements, D.D., Drew, J. 2008. Scientific Review of Great Basin Wildfire Issues. Nevada Bighorn News. 25(5):17-18. Technical Abstract: The University Nevada Reno, College of Agriculture and Resource Concepts Inc., co-sponsored a Great Basin Wildfire Forum in September 2007 to address a “Scientific Review of the Ecological and Management History of Great Basin Natural Resources and Recommendations to Achieve Ecosystem Restoration”. Sixteen scientists from Great Basin environments with more than 550 years of collective experience were invited to address these issues and make recommendations. The greatest threat to Great basin environments was the invasion of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and the role of wildfire in these environments. Cheatgrass was accidentally introduced to North America in the late 1800s through contaminated wheat. The introduction and subsequent invasion of cheatgrass onto millions of acres of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)/perennial bunchgrass communities has been devastating to wildlife resources, domestic livestock resources, economic resources, and plant community function. Cheatgrass provides a fine textured, early maturing fuel that increases the chance of ignition as well as the rate, spread and season of wildfires. Historical wildfire intervals in these communities are estimated at 60-110 years, but now are occurring every 5-10 years. This interval is far too often to allow the return of woody species back into the environment. Cheatgrass out competes native perennials for limited moisture and therefore truncates secondary succession. The ability to control cheatgrass through innovative weed control practices such as discing and herbicidal fallows has met with very limited success. There is political pressure to use native species in these restoration efforts, but the ability of these native species to compete with or suppress cheatgrass has met with large failures for more than 3 decades. These failures have lead to further degradation. To successfully suppress cheatgrass you need a competitive perennial grass about one every foot. Crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) has experienced the best results. Resource managers and policy makers need to understand that this perennial grass is just one example of a species that can compete with cheatgrass, decrease fuel loads and decrease wildfire intervals so that important native species can return to these habitats. Other recommendations are also discussed.