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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED RISK MODEL FOR FOODBORNE ZOONOTIC PARASITES IN SWINE Title: Genetic Diversity of Toxoplasma Gondii Isolates from Chickens from Brazil

Authors
item Dubey, Jitender
item Velmurugan, G.V - VIS SCI ANRI,ARS
item Chockalingam, A - CORNELL UNIV. ITHACA,NY
item Pena, H.F.J - UNIV. SAO PAULO, BRAZIL
item Oliveira, L.NUNES DE - UNIV. SAO PAULO, BRAZIL
item Leifer, C.A - CORNELL UNIV. ITHACA,NY
item Gennari, S.M - UNIV. SAO PAULO, BRAZIL
item Oliveira, L.M.G Bahia - UENFDR RJ BRAZIL, BRAZIL
item Su, C - UT KNOXVILLE, TN

Submitted to: Veterinary Parasitology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: September 4, 2008
Publication Date: November 10, 2008
Citation: Dubey, J.P., Velmurugan, G., Chockalingam, A., Pena, H., Oliveira, L., Leifer, C., Gennari, S., Oliveira, L., Su, C. 2008. Genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from chickens from Brazil. Veterinary Parasitology. 157:299-305.

Interpretive Summary: Toxoplasma gondii is a single-celled parasite of all warm-blooded hosts worldwide. It causes mental retardation and loss of vision in children, and abortion in livestock. Cats are the main reservoir of T. gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the resistant stage (oocyst) of the parasite in the feces. Humans become infected by eating undercooked meat from infected animals and food and water contaminated with oocysts. Scientists at the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center and an university in Brazil report genetic diversity of Toxoplasma in Brazil. The results will be of interest to biologists, parasitologists, and veterinarians Technical Abstract Until recently, Toxoplasma gondii was considered clonal with very little genetic variability. Recent studies indicate that T. gondii isolates from Brazil are genetically and biologically different from T. gondii isolates from USA and Europe. In the present study, we retyped 151 free range chicken isolates from Brazil including 117 newly isolated samples from 11 geographically areas (Alagoas, Bahia, Ceará, Maranhão, Paraná, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, São Paulo, Sergipe, and Rondonia) and 34 previously reported isolates from the very north (Parà) and the very south (Rio Grande do Sul). Ten PCR-RFLP markers including SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico were used to genotype all isolates. Overall analysis of 151 T. gondii isolates revealed 68 genotypes. Most (39/68) of these genotypes had single isolate while less than half (29/68) of the genotypes were characterized with two or more isolates. Only 1 of 151 isolates was clonal Type I strain and 5 were clonal Type III strains. Two isolates had mixed infections. Clonal Type II strain was absent. One strain was Type II at all loci, except BTUB. The results confirm high genetic diversity of T. gondii isolates from Brazil.

Technical Abstract: Until recently, Toxoplasma gondii was considered clonal with very little genetic variability. Recent studies indicate that T. gondii isolates from Brazil are genetically and biologically different from T. gondii isolates from USA and Europe. In the present study, we retyped 151 free range chicken isolates from Brazil including 117 newly isolated samples from 11 geographically areas (Alagoas, Bahia, Ceará, Maranhão, Paraná, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, São Paulo, Sergipe, and Rondonia) and 34 previously reported isolates from the very north (Parà) and the very south (Rio Grande do Sul). Ten PCR-RFLP markers including SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico were used to genotype all isolates. Overall analysis of 151 T. gondii isolates revealed 68 genotypes. Most (39/68) of these genotypes had single isolate while less than half (29/68) of the genotypes were characterized with two or more isolates. Only 1 of 151 isolates was clonal Type I strain and 5 were clonal Type III strains. Two isolates had mixed infections. Clonal Type II strain was absent. One strain was Type II at all loci, except BTUB. The results confirm high genetic diversity of T. gondii isolates from Brazil.

Last Modified: 10/24/2014