Page Banner

United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: The occurrence and frequency of Witches’ Broom Disease associated with Wild Cacao from the Upper Amazon of Peru

Authors
item Arevalo, Enrique - ICT, TARAPOTO, PERU
item Marquez, D - ICT, TARAPOTO, PERU
item Samuels, Gary
item ZHANG, DAPENG
item Robles, Rafael - ICT, TARAPOTO, PERU
item Arevalo, Juan - ICT, TARAPOTO, PERU
item Barreto, A - ICT, TARAPOTO, PERU
item Alvardo, Carlos - ICT, TARAPOTO, PERU
item BALIGAR, VIRUPAX
item MEINHARDT, LYNDEL

Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: August 6, 2008
Publication Date: August 27, 2008
Citation: Arevalo, E.G., Marquez, D.K., Samuels, G.J., Zhang, D., Robles, R., Arevalo, J., Barreto, A., Alvardo, C., Baligar, V.C., Meinhardt, L.W. 2008. The occurrence and frequency of Witches’ Broom Disease associated with Wild Cacao from the Upper Amazon of Peru. XX Congress Peruano de Fitopatologia 2008. Meeting Abstract. #58.

Technical Abstract: The Peruvian Amazon is within the center of origin and diversity for cacao (Theobroma cacao). One of the primary disease of cacao in Peru and Latin America is withes’ broom disease (WBD) caused by Moniliophthora perniciosa. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of WBD in wild cacao trees in the Upper Amazon region of Peru. This was conducted from July the 10 to July 20, 2008 during a prospecting expedition to the following rivers: Aypena (AYP), Charupa (MA-CH), Ungurahui (UNG), Pastaza (PAS), Ungumayo (UGU), Nucuray (NUC) and Urituyacu (URI). We recorded the presence of Witches’ Broom Disease on wild cacao trees and determined the overall severity of the infection based on the percentage of symptoms from flower cushions, flushes and fruits. Overall the general incidence of WBD was found to be 14.7% on cushions, 13.7% on flushes and 1% on the fruits. The incidence of WBD for each of the river systems was 9.1% of the trees were infected for the AYP (from the infected trees 100% cushions, 50% flushes and 0% fruits); 4.5% of the trees were infected for the MA-CH (from the infected trees 100% cushions, 100% flushes and 100% fruits); 34.2% of the trees were infected for the UNG (from the infected trees 62% cushions, 62% flushes and 46% fruits); 12.5% of the trees were infected for the PAS (from the infected trees 33% cushions, 0% flushes and 100% fruits); 11.5% of the trees were infected for the UGU (from the infected trees 33% cushions, 0% flushes and 100% fruits); 8.0% of the trees were infected for the NUC (from the infected trees 0% cushions, 100% flushes and 0% fruits) and12.2% of the trees were infected for the URI (from the infected trees 0% cushions, 100% flushes and 0% fruits). The incidence of WBD observed during this survey suggests that there is high level of WBD resistance in these wild cacao populations.

Last Modified: 9/10/2014