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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: ECOLOGICALLY-BASED PEST MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR WESTERN COTTON

Location: Pest Management and Biocontrol Research

Title: Aphids as crop pests

Author
item BYERS, JOHN

Submitted to: Crop Science
Publication Type: Other
Publication Acceptance Date: May 1, 2008
Publication Date: June 1, 2008
Citation: Byers, J.A. 2008. Aphids as crop pests. Crop Science. 48:823-824.

Interpretive Summary: This book of contributed articles by 68 leading aphid researchers is the most complete gathering of current aphid knowledge since the three volume work entitled “Aphids: Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control” published in 1987 through 1989 (Minks and Harrewijn, 1987). The new book presents aphid biology and ecology that is useful to develop integrated pest management (IPM) systems for various crops. Chapter 1 covers taxonomic issues on aphid species of greatest agricultural importance while Chapter 2 deals with population genetics of clones and their adaptation to host plants, insecticide resistance, migration, and geographic colonization. Chapter 3 on life cycles and polymorphism describes the complex reproductive stages and alternation of host plants of many aphids. The behavior of host-plant selection and discrimination as well as penetration feeding are covered in Chapter 4, while other chapters deal with aphid nutrition and internal symbiotic microorganisms that are critical to nutrition, growth and development, and reproduction. Knowledge about the movement of aphids (Chapter 7) is central to effective IPM, as well as the interactions of predators, parasitoids, and pathogens with the pest (Chapter 8). The chemical ecology of aphids (Chapter 9) is of interest since many aphid species have only females during the summer and do not have sex pheromones when infesting crop plants but only when they return to their alternate host tree species in the autumn. Chapter 10, on resistance to insecticides, tells us that about half a million tons of these chemicals are applied each year in the USA, which has resulted in many of the major aphid pests becoming resistant to several classes of insecticides. Chapter 11 relates how aphids cope with stress due to poor plant quality or extreme temperatures of hot or cold. Aphid population dynamics and the pros and cons of various mathematical modeling approaches are discussed in Chapter 12. Feeding injuries inflicted by aphids on plants (e.g., senescence, stunting, yellowing, deformation, and galling) are covered in Chapter 13. In addition, this chapter considers the effects on aphid inflected injury of plants due to environmental influences such as drought, soil nutrients, temperature, and elevated CO2, as well as moderating effects from biotic factors such as plant microbial symbionts, and from plant resistance. Another type of injury concerns virus transmission by aphids among its host plants (Chapter 14), which increases the pest status of aphids. Control of aphids is emphasized in Chapters 15 on chemical control, 16 on cultural control, 17 on host plant resistance, 18 on biological control, and 19 on monitoring and forecasting of aphid outbreaks. Chapter 20 provides a history and philosophy of IPM and then introduces the final chapters on the status of aphid management in regard to crop systems vulnerable to aphids. These IPM chapters cover 21: brassicas (cabbage, broccoli), 22: berry crops, 23: cotton, 24: leafy salad crops, 25: grain, 26: seed potato, 27: sorghum, 28: cucurbits, 29: deciduous fruit trees, and 30: tropical and subtropical fruit trees. Finally, Chapter 31 deals with decision support systems. Each chapter is self-contained including references.

Technical Abstract: This book of contributed articles by 68 leading aphid researchers is the most complete gathering of current aphid knowledge since the three volume work entitled “Aphids: Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control” published in 1987 through 1989 (Minks and Harrewijn, 1987). The new book offers a considerable and contemporary presentation of aphid biology and ecology that is useful to develop integrated pest management (IPM) systems for various crops. Chapter 1 covers taxonomic issues on aphid species of greatest agricultural importance (pea and bean aphids, cotton/melon aphid, green citrus aphid, wheat aphid, mustard aphid, potato aphid, peach aphid, corn leaf aphid, bird-cherry-oat aphid, greenbug, grain aphid, and spotted alfalfa and clover aphids). Chapter 2 covers population genetics and molecular markers as applied to studies of clones, life cycles, adaptation to host plants, insecticide resistance, migration, and geographic colonization. Chapter 3 on life cycles and polymorphism describes the complex reproductive stages and alternation of host plants of many aphids. The behavior of host-plant selection and discrimination as well as penetration feeding are covered in Chapter 4, and includes how plants respond to this feeding. This leads to Chapter 5 about aphid nutrition and internal symbionts of aphids that are critical to nutrition and reproduction (which ceases if symbionts are removed by antibiotics). As a consequence of nutrition, growth and development are dealt with in Chapter 6. Knowledge about the movement of aphids (Chapter 7) is central to effective IPM, as well as the interactions of predators, parasitoids, and pathogens with the pest (Chapter 8). The chemical ecology of aphids (Chapter 9) is especially of interest since many aphids are parthenogenetic during the summer and do not have sex pheromones when infesting crop plants but only when they return to their alternate host species (usually a tree) in the autumn. Aphids also use an alarm pheromone (E-ß-farnesene) that is released by an individual when captured by a predator that causes the rest of the colony, often closely related members, to disperse and thereby escape. Chapter 10, on resistance to insecticides, tells us that about half a million tons of these chemicals are applied each year in the USA, which has resulted in many of the major aphid pests becoming resistant to several classes of insecticides. Chapter 11 relates on how aphids cope with stress due to poor plant quality or extreme temperatures of hot or cold. Aphid population dynamics and the pros and cons of various mathematical modeling approaches are discussed in Chapter 12. Feeding injuries inflicted by aphids on plants (e.g., senescence, stunting, chlorosis, deformation, and galling) are covered in Chapter 13. In addition, this chapter considers the modulating effects on injury from environmental influences such as drought, soil nutrients, temperature, and elevated CO2, as well as moderating effects from biotic factors such as plant microbial symbionts, and induced and pre-formed plant resistance. Another type of injury concerns virus transmission by aphids among its host plants (Chapter 14), which adds another dimension to the pest status of aphids. Control of aphids is emphasized in Chapters 15 on chemical control, 16 on cultural control, 17 on host plant resistance, 18 on biological control, and 19 on monitoring and forecasting of aphid outbreaks. Chapter 20 provides a history and philosophy of IPM and then introduces the final chapters on case studies of aphid management in regard to crop systems vulnerable to aphids. These IPM chapters cover 21: brassicas, 22: berry crops, 23: cotton, 24: leafy salad crops, 25: grain, 26: seed potato, 27: sorghum, 28: cucurbits, 29: deciduous fruit trees, and 30: tropical and subtropical fruit trees. Finally, Chapter 31 deals with decision support systems. Each chapter is self-contained including references.

Last Modified: 9/10/2014
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