ORIGIN, DEVELOPMENT AND POPULATION GENETICS OF STABLE FLIES AFFECTING PASTURED AND CONFINED LIVESTOCK
Location: Agroecosystem Management Research
Title: Novel approaches using Push-Pull strategy for stable fly control
Submitted to: Livestock Insect Work Conference
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: June 17, 2008
Publication Date: June 17, 2008
Citation: Zhu, J.J., Berkebile, D.R., Albuquerque, T., Zurek, L. 2008. Novel approaches using Push-Pull strategy for stable fly control. Livestock Insect Workers Conference, June 15-18, 2008, Kansas City, Missouri. Section 5: Beef Cattle.
The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, has been considered as the most important insect pest of cattle in the United States. The negative impacts of biting result in significant weight loss and milk production, which attribute to huge economic losses in cattle industry. The control of this pest heavily depends on the application of insecticides, but only provides with marginal effectiveness, and this practice is often not practical for the organic cattle farming.
Push-Pull strategy is a behavioral manipulation strategy in which behavior-modifying stimuli are integrated for reaching the sustainable pest management goal. The efficacy of using this strategy for the pest control is enhanced with a combination of attractants (“pull”) and repellent (“push”). Several successful cases have already been reported in agricultural and urban pest control. However, similar approach has barely been tested in stable fly control.
In this presentation, we will report our preliminary finding on efforts to identify effective stable fly repellents (botanical-based) and potential attractants (including oviposition attractants) that will be further developed into an integrated stable fly management tool. One or several chemical components have been identified from one plant species, which shows with > 98% repellency against starved stable flies (from feeding bioassays using K-D module). In addition, these compounds can effectively deter stable fly egg-laying behavior (>95%). At a dosage of 20 mg, it (vapor pressure) kills stable flies in a relative short period (with knock-down mean time between 6-8 minutes). The spatial repellency of these compounds against the oviposition of gravid stable flies has also been demonstrated.
Stable flies use a wide variety of visual, olfactory, gustatory and physical stimuli in host location and selection. Of these, volatile semiochemicals play a major role in mediating host location, including oviposition. Several manure and rumen associated odorants have been identified with strong sensory responses of stable flies. Further studies suggest that bacterially derived volatile compounds also play a role as oviposition stimulants for gravid stable flies. GC-MS analyses of odors collecting from Citrobacter freundii AR3 AR3 isolated from horse manure and grown in trypticase soy broth or sterilized horse manure show one or several volatile chemicals that may contribute to their oviposition attractiveness. Potentials of using these identified repellent and attractant candidates will also be discussed for use in the future stable fly integrated management.