Title: Triclosan and Methyl-Triclosan Monitoring Study in the Northeast of Spain Using a Magnetic Particle Enzyme Immunoassay and Confirmatory Analysis by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Authors
|Kantiani, Lina - IIQAB-CSIC BARCELONA SPAI|
|Farre, Marinella - IIQAB-CSIC BARCELONA SPAI|
|Asperger, Danijela - UNIV OF ZAGREB, CROATIA04|
|Rubio, Fernando - ABRAXIS, LLC|
|Gonzalez, Susana - IIQAB-CSIC BARCELONA SPAI|
|Lopez DE Alda, Maria-J - IIQAB-CSIC BARCELONA SPAI|
|Petrovic, Mira - ICREA, BARCELONA SPAIN|
|Barcelo, Damia - IIQAB-CSIC BARCELONA SPAI|
Submitted to: Journal of Hydrology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: July 2, 2008
Publication Date: October 1, 2008
Citation: Kantiani, L., Farre, M., Asperger, D., Rubio, F., Gonzalez, S., Lopez De Alda, M., Petrovic, M., Shelver, W.L., Barcelo, D. 2008. Triclosan and methyl-triclosan monitoring study in the northeast of Spain using a magnetic particle enzyme immunoassay and confirmatory analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal of Hydrology 361:1-9. Interpretive Summary: Pharmaceuticals can find their way into the environment and recycle through or alter the food chain. If the particular medicine is not destroyed in sewage and not removed by the wastewater treatment process, that agent will persist in the environment. This paper describes using an ELISA to measure the amount of the antibacterial in wastewater. Triclosan is incorporated into a number of cosmetic and household products commonly used throughout the world. The triclosan ELISA is capable of measuring the triclosan content of a large number of samples much faster than previous methods. The ELISA results have been verified by standard instrumentation method. The results showed that the ELISA is suitable for wide applications for monitoring water supplies of this contaminant.
Technical Abstract: The occurrence of triclosan in the water environment around a Mediterranean region was investigated. Triclosan and methyl-triclosan content of ninety five environmental samples were screened using a magnetic particle enzyme immunoassay. Positive samples were confirmed by solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The performance of a commercial immunoassay was assessed for use in the different types of water selected for this study. A large monitoring study was performed on the influent and the effluent of eight wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), water samples from Ebro and Llobregat rivers, and drinking water. All wastewater samples included in this study (influents and effluents) showed the presence of triclosan, with concentrations for raw influents being high (10 µg/L as average value). The percentages of triclosan removal for the WWTPs were evaluated along the different treatment processes, showing that the best removal rates were obtained by the processes equipped with membrane bioreactors (MBRs). However, significant concentrations of triclosan were detected even after treatment by MBRs. The presence of this biocide was confirmed in 50% of the river samples analyzed. Twenty two drinking water samples from the Barcelona city area were investigated, and in this case no triclosan was detected. Due to its properties and the widespread usage of triclosan, there is a need for monitoring and control of the amounts present in wastewater effluents, river water, drinking water catchments areas, and drinking water. To this end, we present a feasible methodology using a magnetic particle-based immunoassay as a screening, followed by confirmatory analysis using solid phase extraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPE-GC-MS).