Submitted to: North American Plant Protection Organization Workshop
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: May 1, 2008
Publication Date: May 7, 2008
Citation: Hall, D.G. 2008. Biological control of Diaphorina citri. North American Plant Protection Organization Workshop, Taller Internacional Sobre Huanglongbing y el Psilido Asiatico de los Citricos, del 7 at 9 de Mayo de 2008, Hermosillo, Sonora. Technical Abstract: Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is subjected to various levels of biological control throughout its geographic distribution. The species complex of biological control agents attacking D. citri varies geographically but usually includes various species of ladybeetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae); syrphid flies (Diptera: Syrphidae); lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae, Hemerobiidae); and spiders (Aranae). The psyllid is attacked in Asia by two primary parasitoid species, Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam & Agarwal) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Classical biological control projects have been conducted to establish these two parasitoids in a number of countries invaded by D. citri including Mauritius, Réunion Island, and the United States (Florida). T. radiata was successfully established in the United States, but D. aligarhensis was not. T. radiata was also released for psyllid control in Taiwan and Guadeloupe. Dramatic success in reducing populations of D. citri was achieved following releases and establishment of T. radiata in Réunion Island. Good levels of biological control were reported in Guadeloupe after this parasitoid was introduced. Mediocre biological control of D. citri has been achieved by T. radiata in the United States (Florida). T. radiata has been inadvertently introduced into other areas in the United States (Texas), Puerto Rico, Venezuela, and Brazil. T. radiata in India and other areas in Asia are attacked by a complex of hyperparasitoids. Entomopathogenic fungi are known to attack D. citri in some countries and may sometimes be important mortality factors. Biological control of D. citri by natural enemies in Brazil, the United States, and other areas has been considered by many growers to be insufficient in citrus for reducing the incidence and spread of huanglongbing. In such situations, natural enemies may play an important role in area-wide control of D. citri on alternate host plants in the vicinity of citrus.