Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: July 1, 2008
Publication Date: July 26, 2008
Citation: Seiler, G.J., Gulya, T.J. 2008. Evaluation of Rare and Endangered Helianthus Species from the Southeastern United States for Fatty Acid Composition in the Oil [abstract]. Botanical Society of America, July 26-30, 2008, Vancouver, BC, Canada. Paper No. 708. p. 182. Technical Abstract: Sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., oil has the potential to be improved for nutritional and industrial purposes through selection and breeding. The narrow genetic base of cultivated sunflower has been broadened by the infusion of genes from wild species, resulting in a continuous improvement in agronomic traits. Interest in using wild species in breeding programs has increased, but information about fatty acid composition is lacking for a number of rare and threatened species. The objective of this study was to evaluate achenes of seven wild sunflower species, H. eggertii, H. schweinitzii, H. porteri, H. verticillatus, H. smithii, H. angustifolius, and H. atrorubens from the southeastern USA for fatty acid composition of four major fatty acids, palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids. The high linoleic acid concentration in H. porteri of 815 g/kg is the highest concentration reported for a wild sunflower species. Linoleic acid concentrations for all seven species were higher than expected for populations grown in southern latitudes. Generally, the cooler northern latitudes produce considerably higher concentrations of linoleic fatty acid in the oil than the warmer southern latitudes. The lower saturated fatty acid profile in several of the species indicates these species have the potential to reduce saturated fatty acids in commercial sunflower oil. The saturated palmitic and stearic fatty acids totaling 83 to 88 g/kg are about 30% less than typical cultivated sunflower oil with approximately 120 g/kg. Further research will be needed to determine the inheritance of the fatty acids and oil concentration. Other agronomic traits will need to be maintained during the introgression of these traits into sunflower.