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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Evaluation of sunflower for resistance to stem and seed pests in the northern and central Plains

Authors
item Charlet, Laurence
item Aiken, Robert - KANSAS STATE UNIV
item Seiler, Gerald
item Grady, Kathleen - SOUTH DAKOTA STATE UNIV
item Knodel, Janet - NORTH DAKOTA STATE UNIV

Submitted to: Meeting Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: February 13, 2008
Publication Date: February 13, 2008
Repository URL: http://www.sunflowernsa.com/research/research-workshop/documents/Charlet_StemSeedPests_08.pdf
Citation: Charlet, L.D., Aiken, R.M., Seiler, G.J., Grady, K.A., Knodel, J.J. 2008. Evaluation of sunflower for resistance to stem and seed pests in the northern and central Plains. 30th Sunflower Research Forum, National Sunflower Association, January 10-11, 2008, Fargo, ND. Available: http://www.sunflowernsa.com/research/research-workshop/documents/Charlet_StemSeedPests_08.pdf

Interpretive Summary: The major insect pests attacking cultivated sunflower include the sunflower stem weevil, the sunflower moth, the red sunflower seed weevil, the banded sunflower moth, and the sunflower midge. Strategies to reduce crop losses for these pests have focused on insecticidal control, but host-plant resistance may provide a sustainable integrated pest management approach for crop protection with lower input costs for the producer. Evaluation of sunflower germplasm for resistance to important sunflower seed-feeding and stem-infesting pests has been conducted in regions where these insects have caused economic losses. Nurseries for the banded sunflower moth were located in ND, for the sunflower moth and sunflower stem weevil in KS, and nurseries for the red sunflower seed weevil were located in ND and SD. Results from 2006 identified promising resistance in germplasm against the four insects studied. There was a difference in seed damage of 90% between the most susceptible and the most resistant line in the sunflower moth and banded sunflower moth trials and 90% fewer larvae per stalk in the stem weevil trials. The red sunflower seed weevil trials in both locations had genotypes with an 80% difference in seed damage. After each year of testing, lines, accessions, or interspecific crosses with low damage are retested to confirm their resistance to attack. Evaluation of selected hybrids for resistance to the sunflower midge was conducted in 2007 in ND. Results showed that commercially available sunflower hybrids vary in their midge reaction. With proper testing, hybrid reaction to midge infestation can be categorized based on a variety of scales which can identify differences even when sunflower midge populations are low. Results from these evaluation trials enable producers to make informed decisions when choosing hybrids to grow in locations where a midge infestation may be expected.

Technical Abstract: The major insect pests attacking cultivated sunflower include the sunflower stem weevil, the sunflower moth, the red sunflower seed weevil, the banded sunflower moth, and the sunflower midge. Strategies to reduce crop losses for these pests have focused on insecticidal control, but host-plant resistance may provide a sustainable integrated pest management approach for crop protection with lower input costs for the producer. Evaluation of sunflower germplasm for resistance to important sunflower seed-feeding and stem-infesting pests has been conducted in regions where these insects have caused economic losses. Nurseries for the banded sunflower moth were located in ND, for the sunflower moth and sunflower stem weevil in KS, and nurseries for the red sunflower seed weevil were located in ND and SD. Results from 2006 identified promising resistance in germplasm against the four insects studied. There was a difference in seed damage of 90% between the most susceptible and the most resistant line in the sunflower moth and banded sunflower moth trials and 90% fewer larvae per stalk in the stem weevil trials. The red sunflower seed weevil trials in both locations had genotypes with an 80% difference in seed damage. After each year of testing, lines, accessions, or interspecific crosses with low damage are retested to confirm their resistance to attack. Evaluation of selected hybrids for resistance to the sunflower midge was conducted in 2007 in ND. Results showed that commercially available sunflower hybrids vary in their midge reaction. With proper testing, hybrid reaction to midge infestation can be categorized based on a variety of scales which can identify differences even when sunflower midge populations are low. Results from these evaluation trials enable producers to make informed decisions when choosing hybrids to grow in locations where a midge infestation may be expected.

Last Modified: 4/18/2014
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