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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: CONSERVATION SYSTEMS RESEARCH FOR IMPROVING ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND PRODUCER PROFITABILITY

Location: National Soil Dynamics Laboratory

Title: Tillage system and cereal rye residue affects pigweed establishment and competitiveness in cotton

Authors
item Price, Andrew
item Balkcom, Kipling
item Arriaga, Francisco
item Bergtold, Jason
item Donoghue, Ann
item Kornecki, Ted

Submitted to: National Cotton Council Beltwide Cotton Conference
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: February 17, 2008
Publication Date: May 27, 2008
Citation: Price, A.J., Arriaga, F.J., Balkcom, K.S., Bergtold, J.S., Kornecki, T.S., Raper, R.L. 2008. Tillage system and cereal rye residue affects pigweed establishment and competitiveness in cotton. In: Boyd, S., et al, editors. Proceedings of the National Cotton Council Beltwide Cotton Conference, January 8-11, 2008, Nashville, Tennessee. p. 1703-1705.

Interpretive Summary: An integral component of conservation-agriculture systems in cotton is the use of a winter cover crop; however, managing problematic weeds in such systems is a challenge. To evaluate pigweed dynamics in conventional vs. conservation systems, a rye (Secale cereale L.) winter cover crop was established at the E.V. Smith Research and Extension Center located near Shorter, AL in the fall of 2006 and at the Tennessee Valley Research and Extension Center near Bella Mina, AL. Treatments included four conservation-tillage treatments: high, medium, and low amounts of cereal rye plus a winter fallow treatment, as well as a conventional tillage treatment that was left fallow prior to tillage. Additionally, four herbicide regimes were imposed across the previously mentioned treatments. At both locations, the highest pigweed density was attained following the winter fallow conservation-tillage treatment; the second highest densities were attained following the conventional-tillage and third planting date conservation-tillage treatments; pigweed density decreased as winter cover residue increased. Additionally, all conservation-tillage treatments regardless of winter cover yielded more seed cotton lint than the conventional tillage treatment.

Technical Abstract: An integral component of conservation-agriculture systems in cotton is the use of a winter cover crop; however, managing problematic weeds in such systems is a challenge. To evaluate pigweed dynamics in conventional vs. conservation systems, a rye (Secale cereale L.) winter cover crop was established at the E.V. Smith Research and Extension Center located near Shorter, AL in the fall of 2006 and at the Tennessee Valley Research and Extension Center near Bella Mina, AL. Horizontal strips consisted of four conservation-tillage treatments: high, medium, and low amounts of cereal rye plus a winter fallow treatment, as well as a conventional tillage treatment that was left fallow prior to tillage. Additionally, vertical strips consisted of four herbicide regimes: 1) pendimethylin at 1.12 kg/ha applied broadcast preemergence (PRE) application followed by (fb) glyphosate at 1.12 kg ae/ha applied postemergence (POST) fb a LAYBY application of prometryn at 1.12 kg ai/ha plus MSMA at 2.24 kg ai/ha plus 0.25% (v/v) NIS, 2) pendimethylin at 1.12 kg/ha applied banded PRE fb glyphosate at 1.12 kg/ha POST fb a LAYBY application of prometryn at 1.12 kg /ha plus MSMA at 2.24 kg/ha plus 0.25% (v/v) NIS, 3) glyphosate applied at 1.12 kg/ha POST fb a LAYBY application of prometryn at 1.12 kg/ha plus MSMA at 2.24 kg/ha plus 0.25% (v/v) NIS, and 4) a non-treated control. Cotton was then established after within-row sub-soiling at E.V. Smith and no-till at Tennessee Valley. At both locations, the highest rye biomass was attained following the earliest planting date and the lowest rye biomass was attained following the latest planning date. At both locations, the highest pigweed density was attained following the winter fallow conservation-tillage treatment; the second highest densities were attained following the conventional-tillage and third planting date conservation-tillage treatments; pigweed density decreased as winter cover residue increased. Also at both locations, cotton yield was not dependent on pigweed density or pigweed biomass. Additionally, all conservation-tillage treatments regardless of winter cover yielded more seed cotton lint than the conventional tillage treatment.

Last Modified: 4/19/2014
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