Submitted to: Society for General Microbiology
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: January 30, 2008
Publication Date: March 31, 2008
Citation: Swayne, D.E. 2008. From laboratory development to licensing and field use of vaccines to control influenza in poultry [abstract]. 162nd Meeting of the Society for General Microbiology, March 31-April 2, 2008, Edinburgh, Scotland, p. 17.
Vaccines against avian influenza (AI) have had limited use in poultry until the 2003 when the H5N1 high pathogenicity (HP) AI began spread from China to multiple southeast Asian countries, and to Europe in 2005 and Africa in 2006. Over the past 40 years, AI vaccines have been primarily based on field outbreak AI strains that were grown in embryonating chicken eggs, chemically inactivated, emulsified in mineral oil adjuvant and injected into individual birds. Recently, recombinant viral vectored vaccine have been developed and licensed including fowlpox and avian paramyxovirus type 1 (ND) vectored vaccines with AI H5 gene inserts. Additional vectored technologies hold promise for usage in the future possibly including baculoviruses, herpesvirus of turkeys, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, adenoviruses, attenuated influenza A viruses, AI-ND virus chimeras and bacterial vectors such as salmonella. Advances in biotechnologies may overcome some existing limitations and result in vaccines that can be grown in tissue culture systems for more rapid vaccine production; provide optimized protection as the result of closer genetic relationship to field viruses through reverse genetics and gene insertions in vector systems; can be mass applied by aerosol, drinking water or in ovo administration; and provide easier strategies for identifying infected birds within vaccinated populations; i.e. DIVA. However, these new technologies will be licensed only after demonstration of purity, safety, efficacy and potency against AI viruses, and limitation on horizontal transmission in naïve poultry. There potential use in the field will also be determined on the requirement for low cost vaccines to be economically competitive.