Submitted to: Journal of Animal Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: February 20, 2008
Publication Date: June 8, 2008
Citation: Mousel, M.R., Leeds, T.D., White, S.N., Hoesing, L.M. 2008. Technical Note: Comparison of traditional needle vaccination to pneumatic, needle-free vaccination in sheep. Journal of Animal Science. 86:1468-1471. Interpretive Summary: Repeatedly using one needle to vaccinate livestock can laterally transmit diseases. A pneumatic, needle-free injector, eliminates needles and thus the concern for lateral transmission. In sheep, the pneumatic, needle-free injector stimulated the same antibody response as needle injections. Vaccinating with the pneumatic, needle-free injector was faster than changing needles for every animal. In addition, there was a reduction of hazardous waste (e.g., used needles) and no accidental needle sticks with the pneumatic, needle-free injector.
Technical Abstract: Lateral transmission of blood-borne diseases can occur when a single needle is used repeatedly to vaccinate livestock. Needle-free technology to vaccinate sheep without damaging the carcass, causing lesions, and/or leaving needle fragments, and eliciting a similar antibody response to traditional needle vaccinations, has been hampered due to variable wool length. Vaccine delivery, injection time, and antibody response was evaluated for a prototype pneumatically-powered, needle-free injector and for traditional needle injections. To determine optimal pressure for vaccine delivery with the pneumatic, needle-free injector, two 8-mo-old wethers were injected at pressures from 207 to 414 kPa in increments of 69 kPa. Injection time and antibody responses were evaluated using 100 eight-mo-old wethers given primary and secondary inoculations of ovalbumin. Serum samples were collected before and after inoculations on d 0, 14, 28, and 42. Optimal pressure to deliver a s.c. inoculation with the pneumatic, needle-free injector was 207 to 276 pKa. Inoculation of 100 wethers required 60% less time with the pneumatic, needle-free injector than with needle injections when a new needle was used on every animal. Antibody titers were the same (P > 0.12) for pneumatic, needle-free and needle injections on d 14, 28, and 42. In addition, titers increased after primary and secondary inoculations, as expected. This study indicated that a pneumatic, needle-free injector can be used to elicit the same antibody response in sheep as a needle injection, and the pneumatic, needle-free injector was faster. The pneumatic, needle-free injector will reduce lateral transmission of blood-borne diseases, save time, eliminate biohazard waste (e.g., used needles), and eliminate accidental needle sticks for livestock handlers when vaccinating sheep.