Submitted to: Journal of Food Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: February 28, 2008
Publication Date: June 12, 2008
Citation: Min, B., Green, B.W. 2008. Use of microbial transglutaminase and non-meat proteins to improve functional properties of low NaCl, phosphate-free patties made from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) belly flap meat. Journal of Food Science. 73(5):E218-E226. Interpretive Summary: Most catfish products processed in the US are sold as fresh or frozen fillets and whole dressed fish. The shank fillet of channel catfish is a primary product form produced during processing and is formed by trimming the belly flap or nugget section from a boneless fillet. The production of belly flap meat is around 20% of the fillet weight. Compared to the shank fillet, belly flap meat has a lower economic value. Increased economic returns for processors may be possible if belly flap meat were used to make a value-added product such as a catfish patty. In two experiments we investigated sixteen formulations for making a catfish patty that was low in sodium and phosphate-free. To be successful, the formulation must yield a patty that does not loose too much weight upon cooking, has textural characteristics that appeal to consumers, and withstands the rigors of automated processing. We identified one low-sodium, phosphate-free formulation that had desirable textural characteristics and a good cooking yield. This formulation will form the basis for the final development of a catfish patty that will improve processor utilization of belly flap meat and offer consumers a nutritious fish product.
Technical Abstract: This study was aimed at developing a value-added low sodium chloride (NaCl), phosphate-free patty using minced channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) belly flap meat. The effect of microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) and non-meat proteins (isolated soy protein, ISP and whey protein concentrate, WPC) alone and in combination were evaluated in order to improve cooking yield and textural properties in patties with reduced NaCl and no phosphate. The concentration effect of MTGase was also studied. The addition of MTGase increased textural properties such as binding strength, hardness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and springiness, but decreased cooking yield of the patties (P<0.05). Isolated soy protein increased cooking yield (P<0.05), but did not affect the textural properties. Inclusion of WPC did not increase cooking yield or impact textural properties of patties. The combination of MTGase and ISP significantly increased both the cooking yield and textural properties of patties. As the concentration of MTGase increased at constant ISP, the textural properties of cooked patties significantly increased, but cooking yield decreased (P<0.05). In conclusion, we suggest that the combination of 0.05 ~ 0.1 % of MTGase with 1.7% ISP is the best to develop a low NaCl, phosphate-free patty using minced catfish belly flap meat.