Title: Improving Utilization of Sustainable Products in Aquaculture Author
Submitted to: International Aquaculture Meeting
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: August 1, 2007
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: Evaluation of genotype by diet interactions in aquaculture species for specific dietary components has only recently begun on a limited basis. Initial studies have examined such species as sea bream, rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon. Because of the high-protein diet these species consume in the wild, commercial diets have relied heavily on fish meal and fish oil as protein and energy sources. Other omnivorous fish species such as tilapia and catfish have demonstrated a greater proclivity for utilizing plant feedstuffs and carbohydrate for energy, but little research has been performed on these species in regards to precise physiological changes in accord with nutrient modification or selection to alter performance on specific feed types. Research performed in other agriculture animal systems, such as cattle, swine, and poultry, have found alterations in specific physiological traits for different strains. These changes have also been found to significantly correlate with individual genes in research done with murine and laboratory fish models. This research is now being applied to commercial fish species. Initial findings have varied between stocks and with different diets, but as the technology and experimental designs improve, it appears that this type of research will prove important for optimizing diets and carnivorous fish species for enhanced utilization of sustainable products.
Technical Abstract: In the future the role of alternative protein and oil sources will dramatically change from becoming an additive to supplying most of the protein and oil in aquaculature feeds. Although studies have been performed there is still little knowledge concerning interactions between different dietary products and gene expression relating to physiological utilization of plant material. Our research has evaluated several genes involved with muscle growth, protein accretion, lipid deposition, and immune function in correlation with intake of diets formulated with plant protein and oils. Our finding suggest that there is a genetic component to the utilization of several types of plant material ranging from carbohydrates and oils to antinutrional factors. An important factor also involves the level of incorporation and type of material.