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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT AND USE OF ANIMAL MANURE TO PROTECT HUMAN HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

Location: Food Animal Environmental Systems Research Unit

Title: The Effect of Stratification and Seasonal Variability on the Profile of an Anaerobic Swine Waste Treatment Lagoon.

Authors
item Lovanh, Nanh
item Loughrin, John
item Cook, Kimberly
item Rothrock, Michael
item Sistani, Karamat

Submitted to: Bioresource Technology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: September 2, 2008
Publication Date: August 26, 2009
Citation: Lovanh, N.C., Loughrin, J.H., Cook, K.L., Rothrock Jr, M.J., Sistani, K.R. 2009. The Effect of Stratification and Seasonal Variability on the Profile of an Anaerobic Swine Waste Treatment Lagoon. Bioresource Technology. 100:3706-3712

Interpretive Summary: An understanding of the nature of wastes in an anaerobic swine lagoon is essential in the design and operation of alternative collection, treatment, and disposal facilities for environmental quality management such as odor control, nutrient and pathogen reduction. In this study, the characterization of an anaerobic swine waste treatment lagoon (0.40 ha) from a farrowing operation (~2000 sows) was carried out to examine the dynamics of the system due to stratification and seasonal variability. Swine waste samples were taken from an anaerobic swine lagoon at different depths (0, 50, and 250 cm) with a pulley system equipped with a special sampler that allows for sampling exclusively at certain depth. The sampling process was carried out from spring to fall season. The pH and temperature were monitored and recorded continuously from the epilimnion (top) and hypolimnion (bottom) layers of the lagoon. The samples were then analyzed for their mineral contents by using Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP), Total Nitrogen, and Total Organic Carbon analyzers. Microbial dynamics were monitored by DNA extraction and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). Results showed that nutrient (C, N, P, S) concentrations varied according to stratified lagoon layers and season. For example, total organic carbon concentrations range from 1800 mg/L (top) to 5400 mg/L (bottom) for late spring, and from 1100 mg/L (top) to 3600 mg/L (bottom) for the middle of summer. Trace minerals such as Al, Ca, Fe, K, Na, and Mg, on the other hand, appeared to be affected more by stratification than seasonal variability. The reason for the decrease in nutrient concentrations in summer time may be due to increase microbial activities which required more essential nutrients (i.e., C, N, P, S) rather than trace minerals for growth during active season. DGGE analysis also showed that microbial community structure appeared to be affected by the stratification and seasonal variability. There were distinct banding patterns for samples obtained from the epilimnion and hypolimnion. Based on these data, it is important to consider the effect of stratification and seasonal variability of waste loading from traditional anaerobic swine lagoon when designing and operating an alternative anaerobic digester.

Technical Abstract: An understanding of the nature of wastes in an anaerobic swine lagoon is essential in the design and operation of alternative collection, treatment, and disposal facilities for environmental quality management such as odor control, nutrient and pathogen reduction. In this study, the characterization of an anaerobic swine waste treatment lagoon from a farrowing operation (~2000 sows) was carried out to examine the dynamics of the system due to stratification and seasonal variability. Swine waste samples were taken at different depths with a pulley system equipped with a special sampler that allows for sampling exclusively at certain depth. Chemicals and microbial dynamics were monitored throughout a one year period. Results showed that nutrient (C, N, P, S) concentrations varied according to stratified lagoon layers and season. Trace minerals (Al, Ca, Fe, and Mg), on the other hand, appeared to be affected more by stratification than seasonal variability. Molecular analysis also showed that microbial community structure appeared to be affected by the stratification and seasonal variability. Based on these data, it is important to consider the effect of stratification and seasonal variability in managing these open lagoons.

Last Modified: 4/24/2014