Submitted to: Swine Improvement Federation Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: November 15, 2007
Publication Date: December 1, 2007
Citation: Mcdaneld, T.G., Wiedmann, R.T., Miles, J.R., Cushman, R.A., Vallet, J.L., Smith, T.P. 2007. MicroRNA (MiRNA) technology in livestock: expression profiling of bovine oocyte and developmental stages of porcine skeletal muscle. Conference Proc., National Swine Improvement Federation Conference & Ann. Mtg., Dec. 5-7, 2007. Kansas City, MO, NSIF Volume 32, www.nsif.com. Interpretive Summary: MicroRNA (miR) are small RNA sequences that regulate abundance of gene transcripts and are involved in developmental processes of the animal. Implication of miR in such a wide array of developmental processes has increased interest in evaluating miR of production livestock; however, published research is limited. Therefore, developing technologies to detect and evaluate miR is of importance to determine their functional importance in livestock production. Currently, there are multiple technologies available that measure individual and global miR abundance, however many are currently limited to representations of human and a few biomedical model species based on the miR sequence and therefore not applicable for all production species. Our approach was to use clone libraries for evaluation of miR abundance, as this technology is not limited to known sequences in the data base and creates an avenue for discovery of novel miR. We have currently profiled miR abundance in swine skeletal muscle and bovine oocytes and are also interested in the role of miR in adipose tissue and feed efficiency. These areas of livestock production are of importance as they impact production cost and profit margin. Reproductive performance of the dam impacts stayability in the herd while feed costs represent greater than 50% of the total cost in most livestock production systems. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle are also of interest as profit margin in production livestock is influenced by nutrient partitioning between these tissues. Initial results suggest the presence of miR in bovine oocytes not previously documented and an initial group of miR that change in expression during specific developmental stages of skeletal muscle. These miR will provide us with an initial group of miR that change in abundance in individual tissues and during specific developmental stages and thereby identify miR that impact economically important traits.
Technical Abstract: MicroRNA (miR) are a class of small RNAs that regulate gene expression by inhibiting translation of protein encoding transcripts through activation of a specific cellular pathway. A single miR can target numerous distinct mRNA for decreased translation, and as a result miR appear to be intimately involved in developmental decisions including cell fate, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, adipocyte differentiation, and processes that alter muscle development and growth. Implication of miR in such a wide array of cellular processes has increased interest in evaluating miR of production livestock; however, published research is limited. Therefore, this review will focus on technologies available for evaluation of miR and the role of miR in economically important traits that are of interest in production livestock.