Submitted to: Environmental Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: May 16, 2008
Publication Date: October 21, 2008
Citation: Kendra, P.E., Epsky, N.D., Montgomery, W.S., Heath, R.R. 2008. Response of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) to terminal diamines in a food-based synthetic attractant.. Environmental Entomology 37:1119-1125 Interpretive Summary: Improved trapping systems are needed for detection of Anastrepha fruit flies, a group of serious economic pests of tropical and subtropical fruits. Currently, fruit fly traps are baited with a two-component lure consisting of ammonium acetate and putrescine. In an effort to find new attractants, scientists at the USDA-ARS, Subtropical Horticulture Research Station (Miami, FL) evaluated response of the Caribbean fruit fly (A. suspensa) to a group of four diamine chemicals structurally similar to putrescine, the known attractant. Laboratory experiments were performed to measure olfactory response to the test diamines versus putrescine. Field tests were conducted to determine capture of flies in traps baited with ammonium acetate and each of the diamine lures. Of the chemicals examined, cadaverine showed the most promise as a potential new attractant and will be the focus of future research. This study is part of an ongoing program to optimize monitoring programs for use by action agencies for early detection of invasive fruit fly pests.
Technical Abstract: A current trapping system for Anastrepha fruit flies utilizes a two-component food-based synthetic attractant consisting of ammonium acetate and putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane) lures. Development of more effective monitoring programs may be realized through identification of additional attractant chemicals. This study examined response of the Caribbean fruit fly, A. suspensa (Loew), to putrescine and four homologous terminal diamines, differing only in carbon chain length. Electroantennography of mature females found greater antennal response to putrescine and cadaverine (1,5-diaminopentane) than to the other diamines tested. Field tests found similar results in that relative capture of female flies in traps baited with ammonium acetate and either putrescine or cadaverine was higher than in traps baited with ammonium acetate and any of the other diamines. In a subsequent field test, traps baited with any of the diamines in combination with ammonium acetate captured more female flies than traps baited with ammonium acetate alone when newly deployed diamine lures were tested, but this effect lasted longer in traps baited with putrescine or cadaverine. Thus, of the diamines evaluated, cadaverine elicited both antennal and behavioral responses comparable to that of putrescine.