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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Steam Cooking Significantly Improves In Vitro Bile Acid Binding of Collard Greens, Kale, Mustard Greens, Broccoli, Green Bell Pepper and Cabbage

Authors
item Kahlon, Talwinder
item Chiu, Mei Chen
item Chapman, Mary

Submitted to: Nutrition Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: March 11, 2008
Publication Date: May 28, 2008
Citation: Kahlon, T.S., Chiu, M.M., Chapman, M.H. 2008. Steam Cooking Significantly Improves In Vitro Bile Acid Binding of Collard Greens, Kale, Mustard Greens, Broccoli, Green Bell Pepper and Cabbage. Nutrition Research. 28:351-357.

Interpretive Summary: Steam cooking significantly improved in vitro bile acid binding of collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper and cabbage compared with previously observed bile acid binding values for these vegetables raw (uncooked). Considering cholestyramine (bile acid binding, cholesterol-lowering drug) as 100% bound, the relative in vitro bile acid binding on dry matter basis was the basis for the collard greens, kale, and mustard greens, 13%; broccoli 10%, Brussels sprouts, and spinach, 8%; green bell pepper 7%, and cabbage 5%. These results point to the significantly different health-promoting potential of collard greens = kale = mustard greens > broccoli > Brussels sprouts = spinach = green bell pepper > cabbage as indicated by their bile acid binding on dry matter basis. Inclusion of steam-cooked collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper and cabbage in our daily diet as health-promoting vegetables should be emphasized.

Technical Abstract: Bile acid binding capacity has been related to the cholesterol-lowering potential of foods and food fractions. Lowering recirculating bile acids results in utilization of cholesterol to synthesize bile acid and reduced fat absorption. Secondary bile acids have been associated with increasing the risk of cancer. Bile acid binding potential has been related to lowering the risk of heart disease as well as that of cancer. Previously we have reported bile acid binding by several uncooked vegetables. However, most vegetables are consumed after cooking. How cooking would influence in vitro bile acid binding of various vegetables was investigated using a mixture of bile acids secreted in human bile under physiological conditions. Eight replicate incubations were conducted for each treatment simulating gastric and intestinal digestion, which included a substrate only, a bile acid mixture only and six with substrate and bile acid mixture. Cholestyramine (a cholesterol-lowering, bile acid binding drug) was the positive control treatment and cellulose as a negative control. Relative to cholestyramine in vitro bile acid binding on dry matter basis was for the collard greens, kale, and mustard greens, 13%; broccoli 10%, Brussels sprouts, and spinach, 8%; green bell pepper 7%, and cabbage 5%. These results point to the significantly different health-promoting potential of collard greens = kale = mustard greens > broccoli > Brussels sprouts = spinach = green bell pepper > cabbage as indicated by their bile acid binding on dry matter basis. Steam cooking significantly improved in vitro bile acid binding of collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper and cabbage compared with previously observed bile acid binding values for these vegetables raw (uncooked). Inclusion of steam-cooked collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper and cabbage in our daily diet as health-promoting vegetables should be emphasized. These green leafy vegetables, when consumed regularly after steam cooking, would lower the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer, advance human nutrition research and improve public health.

Last Modified: 9/1/2014
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