Title: Update on Salmonella typing Author
Submitted to: National Turkey Federation
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: September 27, 2007
Publication Date: October 11, 2007
Citation: Cray, P.J. 2007. Update on Salmonella typing. National Turkey Federation Technical and Regulatory Meeting, October 11-12,2007, Washington, DC. Technical Abstract: Background: The awareness of food borne illness has shifted over the years as international agribusiness and transportation have steadily increased. At least 30 food borne agents have been identified, with one-third emerging in the last 3 decades. Despite an increased emphasis on control measures, particularly those associated with controlling Salmonella, the estimated annual burden of illness remains high in both developed and developing countries. Methods: Control measures have offered only limited success and no single reliable intervention has been successful in eliminating any zoonotic illness. Surveillance is central for the control of food borne disease. Globally, this requires an integrated farm-to-fork approach including harmonization of program goals, methodology and reporting. Risk assessments have been undertaken in a number of countries to quantify the burden of food borne related illness. However, these estimates are often hampered by a lack of data as well as a continued inability to link outbreaks to specific food sources. Subtyping methods, including serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance and PFGE will be discussed. Results: The advantages and limitations associated with using any one method alone will be discussed. Additional information will be given to demonstrate the increased power that can be achieved when more than one method is used. Limitations will also be discussed. Conclusions: Food borne illness is a complex issue and the burden is spread across the farm-to-fork continuum. Vigilant efforts, new paradigms, and sensitive methods are required to provide more precise estimates of the burden associated with food borne disease. Additionally, enhanced efforts must also be directed to accurately determine the source (food, animal, human and/or ecologic) of food borne illness through attribution studies.