MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND GENOMICS OF FOODBORNE PATHOGENS
Location: Produce Safety and Microbiology Research
Title: Review of methods for the reduction of dietary content & toxicity of acrylamide
Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: May 18, 2008
Publication Date: July 15, 2008
Citation: Friedman, M., Levin, C.E. 2008. Review of methods for the reduction of dietary content & toxicity of acrylamide. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 56:6113-6140.
Interpretive Summary: Potentially toxic acrylamide is largely derived from heat-induced reactions between the amino group of the free amino acid asparagine and carbonyl groups of glucose and fructose in cereal and potato based foods. This paper covers our contribution to the Proceedings of the American Chemical Society Symposium organized by D. S. Mottram (University of Reading, UK) and M. Friedman (WRRC) entitled “Chemistry and Toxicology of Acrylamide”, Boston, MA, August 21-23, 2007. By arrangement with the Editor (J. Seiber, WRRC), the Proceedings will be published in a single issue of the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. This comprehensive assessment surveys and interprets the following dietary aspects of acrylamide: (a) distribution in food originating from different sources; (b) consumption by different populations; (c) plant physiology an food processing approaches designed to mitigate the acrylamide content of the diet. We are challenged to pursue the desirable goal of minimizing the acrylamide content of the diet by one or more of the cited approaches and to educate food processors and consumers about ways to modify culinary practices that will reduce the formation and increase elimination of acrylamide during commercial and home processing of the various food categories mentioned in this essay.
This overview surveys the following dietary aspects of acrylamide: distribution in food originating from different sources, consumption by diverse populations, and approaches designed to mitigate the acrylamide content of the diet. These approaches include (b) selecting potato, cereal, and other plant varieties for dietary use that contain low levels of the acrylamide precursors, namely asparagine and glucose; (c) removing precursors before processing; (d) using the enzyme asparaginase to hydrolyze asparagine to aspartic acid; (e) selecting processing conditions (pH, temperature, time, atmosphere) that minimize acrylamide formation; (f) adding food ingredients (acidulants, amino acids, antioxidative flavonoids; carbohydrates, chitosan, garlic compounds; protein hydrolysates, proteins, metal salts) – compounds that have been reported to prevent acrylamide formation; (g) removing/trapping acrylamide after it is formed with the aid of chromatography, evaporation, and reaction with other food ingredients; and (i) reducing in vivo bioavailability. Research needs are suggested that may further facilitate reducing the acrylamide burden of the diet. We are challenged to (a) apply the cited approaches to minimize the acrylamide content of the diet without adversely affecting nutritional quality, safety, and sensory attributes including color and flavor as well as acceptance by the consumer; and (b) educate commercial and home food processors and the public about available approaches to reducing the acrylamide content of heated foods.