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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Efficacy and 1,3-D Emissions with Approved Nursery Stock Certification Treatments Applied with Two Shank Designs

Authors
item Hanson, Bradley
item Gao, Suduan
item Mc Kenry, Michael - UNIV OF CALIF, RIVERSIDE
item Gerik, James
item Wang, Dong
item Klonsky, Karen - UNIV OF CALIF, DAVIS
item Cox, David - L.E. COOKE CO., VISALIA,
item Correiar, Brian - JACKSON & PERKINS, INC. W
item Yates, Scott

Submitted to: International Conference on Methyl Bromide Alternatives and Emissions Reductions
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: October 26, 2007
Publication Date: November 1, 2007
Citation: Hanson, B.D., Gao, S., Mc Kenry, M., Gerik, J.S., Wang, D., Klonsky, K., Cox, D., Correiar, B., Yates, S.R. 2007. Efficacy and 1,3-D Emissions with Approved Nursery Stock Certification Treatments Applied with Two Shank Designs. International Conference on Methyl Bromide Alternatives and Emissions Reductions.

Interpretive Summary: Producers of nursery stock in California rely on preplant soil fumigation to meet requirements for nematode free planting stock. Certified clean stock is essential for successful establishment and future productivity of new orchards and vineyards and is a requirement for intra- and interstate as well as international commerce of planting materials. Historically, most field grown perennial nursery operations have used methyl bromide (MB) for preplant pest control; however, this chemical is being phased out because of its effect on stratospheric ozone. Currently the primary non-MB fumigant that meets the requirements of the Nursery Stock Nematode Certification program is 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D). Several factors limit the adoption of 1,3-D in perennial crop nurseries including environmental and human safety and pest control efficacy at both very shallow and deeper soil depths. This recently initiated research program is designed to address the emission reduction potential and pest control efficacy of several 1,3-D application techniques including deep placement, plastic tarps, and enhanced soil moisture and present this information to growers and pesticide regulators.

Technical Abstract: Nursery producers of perennial crops including fruit and nut trees, grapevines, and ornamentals in California rely on preplant soil fumigation to meet CDFA requirements for nematode free planting stock. Certified clean stock is essential for successful establishment and future productivity of new orchards and vineyards and is a requirement for intra- and interstate as well as international commerce of planting materials. Historically, most field grown perennial nursery operations have used methyl bromide (MB) for preplant pest control because the chemical can effectively diffuse through the soil profile, penetrate existing roots, and has dependably provided effective pest control across a range of soil type and moisture conditions. Currently the primary non-MB fumigant that meets the requirements of the CDFA’s Nursery Stock Nematode Certification program is 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D). Several factors limit the adoption of 1,3-D in perennial crop nurseries including environmental and human safety concerns and pest control efficacy. In these recently established large field experiments, Telone II was applied at 332 kg/ha using a conventional shanks or Buessing shanks (split-depth application) and included several surface seal techniques (plastic tarps, water seals, additional fumigant) designed to reduce 1,3-D emissions or increase efficacy. Emission data was collected using active flux chamber techniques and nematode, fungi, and weed control were monitored using field or laboratory techniques.

Last Modified: 12/19/2014
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