MINIMIZING THE ADVERSE HEALTH AND ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF MYCOTOXINS AND PLANT TOXINS IN FOODS
Location: Toxicology and Mycotoxin Research
Title: Fusarium and their toxins: Mycology, occurrence, toxicity, control, and economic impact
Submitted to: Animal Feed Science And Technology
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: July 1, 2007
Publication Date: August 1, 2007
Citation: Morgavi, D.P., Riley, R.T. 2007. Fusarium and their toxins: Mycology, occurrence, toxicity, control, and economic impact. Animal Feed Science And Technology. 137:199-200.
Interpretive Summary: See Technical Abstract for Summary of Special Supplemental Edition of Journal.
Although crop diseases caused by fungi and the association of reduced productivity and disease in farm animals with consumption of moldy feed have been recognised since ancient times, the scientific interest in toxigenic fungi only began in earnest in the second half of the 20th century. Among the genera of fungi most likely to affect animal health and production, Fusarium spp. are particularly significant because they are ubiquitous in nature and produce a large and diverse array of toxic secondary metabolites in commodities that are often incorporated into or used directly as animal feed. This special issue of Animal Feed Science and Technology compiles the up-to-date information on the economically most important Fusarium and their mycotoxins with particular reference to their occurrence in feeds and their effects on domestic animals. An historical summary of reported field toxicoses known or suspected to be caused by Fusarium mycotoxins is presented by Morgavi and Riley. The dominant Fusarium species associated with the production of the major mycotoxins, trichothecenes, zearalenone, and fumonisins, are the focus of the review of Glenn which presents the current taxonomy and the ecological and environmental factors associated with mycotoxin contamination of feeds. The correct identification and quantification of Fusarium mycotoxins in feeds and biological samples is essential to monitor contamination and avoid toxicosis and to establish a diagnosis in cases of suspected outbreaks. Krska, Welzig and Boudra review the validated methods available for the detection of these mycotoxins. Different techniques are presented ranging from rapid high throughput screening up to more sensitive techniques for confirmatory purposes. The high worldwide prevalence of mycotoxins from Fusarium and other fungal genera present in feeds is highlighted by the data presented by Binder, Tan, Chin, Handl and Richard from an international survey spanning several regions of the world. The major Fusarium mycotoxins, responsible for most cases affecting animal production and health, are presented in separated reviews. The toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, and toxic effects on animals of the trichothecene deoxynivalenol is reviewed by Pestka, fumonisins are reviewed by Voss, Smith and Haschek, and zearalenone is reviewed by Fink-Gremmels and Malekinejad. Avoiding mycotoxin exposure to farm animals is complicated by the fact that the mycotoxigenic species occur in close association with their hosts and thus exposure to mycotoxins cannot be totally avoided. Jouany reviews the current strategies used to reduce Fusarium contamination in the field as well as methods available to decontaminate feeds. Finally, Wu gives an original methodological approach to estimate the cost of Fusarium contamination that includes economical losses due to adverse effects on animal health and trade losses from feeds unfit to be consumed. The various articles in this special issue summarize the current state of knowledge and highlight the significant recent progress that has been made to improve our understanding of the mycology, occurrence, toxicity, control and economic impact of Fusarium mycotoxins