|Steeby, James - MSU|
|Huggett, Duane - NTU|
Submitted to: Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Abstracts
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: August 1, 2007
Publication Date: November 11, 2007
Citation: Straus, D.L., Steeby, J.A. 2007. environmental assessment of copper sulfate use in channel catfish ponds [abstract]. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Abstracts. 23:173. Technical Abstract: Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is used worldwide as a waterborne disease therapeutant in commercial and ornamental fish culture. However, it is not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for therapeutic use in aquaculture; regulatory action on the use of CuSO4 has been deferred pending the outcome of ongoing research. A New Animal Drug Application is being prepared in order to gain approval for use of CuSO4 as a disease therapeutant to control mortality associated with ichthyophthiriasis on channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) cultured in earthen ponds. The levels of copper entering the receiving environment will be dependent on the use-pattern of CuSO4 and the environmental fate characteristics of copper. The amount of CuSO4 applied (i.e., concentration, timing, frequency and duration of application) will be determined by the biology of the protozoan parasite (Ichthyophthirius multifiliis) that causes ichthyophthiriasis. From survey data taken in 2001, the major use of CuSO4 to treat ichthyophthiriasis is in food-size fish production ponds rather than in fingerling ponds. This is expected as food-size fish production ponds also represent approximately 88% of the total pond area in catfish aquaculture. The use of CuSO4 in these ponds serves as a ‘worst-case scenario’; however, these ponds may be in continuous production for up to 10 years. The total value of fingerling channel catfish lost to ichthyophthiriasis was approximately US $824,000 and the total amount of CuSO4 used to treat infected fingerlings was about 19,000 lbs. (9.5 tons or 8.6 metric tons). The total value of food-size fish lost to ichthyophthiriasis was approximately US $386,000 and the total amount of CuSO4 used to treat infected fish was about 74,000 lbs. (37 tons or 33.6 metric tons).