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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: PROTOZOAN PARASITES AFFECTING FOOD ANIMALS, FOOD SAFETY, AND PUBLIC HEALTH Title: Cryptosporidium and Cryptosporidiosis

Authors
item Fayer, Ronald
item Xiao, Lihua - CDC, ATLANTA, GA

Submitted to: Cryptosporidium and Cryptosporidiosis
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: June 22, 2007
Publication Date: January 1, 2008
Citation: Fayer, R., Xiao, L. 2008. Cryptosporidium and Cryptosporidiosis. Cryptosporidium and Cryptosporidiosis. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press. 560 p.

Interpretive Summary: This second edition of the book “Cryptosporidium and Cryptosporidiosis” has been greatly revised and expanded in response to the volume and scope of new information on these protozoan parasites of human and veterinary importance and the need to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date treatment consolidating the thousands of scientific reports. Interest in Cryptosporidium has spread from its academic base among biologists and parasitologists to veterinarians, physicians, epidemiologists, pharmacologists, public health specialists, drinking water and waste water managers, swimming pool managers, farmers, backpackers, and the public in general. Concern for prevention and treatment extends from underdeveloped communities to highly industrialized societies, for immunocompromised persons as well as healthy populations, for persons of all ages from infants to the elderly, and for persons caring for animals from companion animals and livestock to captive exotic species.

Technical Abstract: This 2nd edition of the book “Cryptosporidium and Cryptosporidiosis” has been greatly revised and expanded. Included are the following chapters and subject areas. Chapter 1 discusses general biological issues. It traces the history of discovery of the genus and species, updates the taxonomy, describes the life cycle stages and their morphology, addresses host specificity, and summarizes factors that reduce oocyst transmission. Chapter 2 introduces molecular biology to the study of Cryptosporidium through description of data types, properties of the genome, genetic regulation, and comparative genomics. Chapter 3 updates the biochemistry of this genus. It describes energy and carbohydrate metabolism as well as nucleotide, fatty acid, polyamine, amino acid and DNA and RNA metabolism. It describes structural proteins, membrane proteins and transporters, and delves into potential drug targets. Chapter 4 provides epidemiologists and persons interested in transmission dynamics with detailed descriptions of outbreaks and the methods used to trace the sources. Chapter 5 is devoted to molecular epidemiology. It describes the molecular tools, the population genetics of Cryptosporidium species, the epidemiology of animal and human infections, and tracking sources in water. Chapter 6 provides laboratory technicians and diagnosticians detailed descriptions of the vast array of tests used for oocyst recovery, concentration, and purification as well as microscopic methods for staining and observing oocysts. It summarizes immunological and molecular methods for detecting infection and, when possible, identifying species. Chapter 7 describes host immune responses. The innate immunity of epithelial cells and natural killer cells, T cell mediated immunity, parasite specific priming of cells, the roles of cytokines, protection from parasite specific antibodies, and vaccination against infection are discussed. Chapter 8 provides medical workers with the description of clinical disease and pathology in humans including infections in immunocompetent and immunocompromised persons and age-related infections. It discusses organ sites, histopathology, pathophysiology, and human volunteer studies. Chapter 9 details the vast array of compounds tested with emphasis on those found most effective for prophylaxis and treatment of cryptosporidiosis in humans and animals. Chapter 10 reviews foodborne transmission, the outbreaks, methods of detection in various foods, sources of contamination, decontamination, and HACCP and other regulations. Chapter 11 presents the issues concerned with Cryptosporidium oocysts in drinking water. These include outbreaks, methods for detection and prevention, and government regulations related to the drinking water industry. Chapter 12 discusses factors associated with transmission of Cryptosporidium in various types of recreational waters. It describes the outbreaks and means to reduce or prevent future outbreaks. Chapter 13 deals with waste management, specifically: treatment of wastewater effluent, sludge treatment, and treatment of manure from cattle and swine. Chapter 14 reviews infections in fish, amphibians, and reptiles and discusses treatment, prevention and control. Chapter 15 addresses cryptosporidiosis in birds, the disease, immunity, prophylaxis and treatment, cultivation of the parasite, and the major species and genotypes infecting birds. Chapter 16 covers the range of wild animals infected with Cryptosporidium from rodents, lagomorphs, insectivores, omnivores, ruminants, carnivores, bats, and marsupials to non-human primates. Chapter 17 discusses cryptosporidiosis of major companion animal species: cats, dogs, and horses. Chapter 18 discusses cryptosporidiosis of major livestock species: cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, and other species. Chapter 19 provides new information on animal models best suited for parasite propagation, the rodent, pig, monkey and gerbil models best suited for research, and models for testing parasite host range. And finally, Chapter 20 provides descriptions of in vitro methods to study Cryptosporidium, the cells and media found most useful, and the techniques for producing and storing purified parasites.

Last Modified: 8/30/2014
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