COUNTERMEASURES TO PREVENT AND CONTROL TUBERCULOSIS IN CATTLE AND WILDLIFE RESERVOIRS
Location: Infectious Bacterial Diseases Research Unit
Title: Comparison of Four Serological Assays and Culture to Determine Tuberculosis Infection in Captive Elephants in Nepal
| Mikota, Susan - ELEPHANT CARE INT. |
| Miller, Michele - DISNEY'S ANIMAL KINGDOM |
| Dumonceaux, Genevieve - BUSCH GARDENS, FLORIDA |
| Giri, Kamal - INST. AG/ANIMAL SC/NEPAL |
| Gairhe, Kamal - DEPT. OF NAT. PARKS,NEPAL |
| Hamilton, Karin - TUFTS CNTR FOR CONS. ME |
| Paudel, Sarad - INST. AG/ANIMAL SC/NEPAL |
| Lyaschshenko, Konstantin - CHEMBIO DIAGNOSTICS |
| Larsen, R - SCHOOL OF VET MED/UCLA |
| Payeur, Janet - APHIS |
| Kaufman, Gretchen - CUMMINGS SCHOOL OF VET. M |
Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: October 20, 2007
Publication Date: October 20, 2007
Citation: Mikota, S.K., Miller, M., Dumonceaux, G., Giri, K., Gairhe, K., Hamilton, K., Paudel, S., Lyaschshenko, K., Larsen, R.S., Payeur, J., Waters, W.R., Kaufman, G. 2007. Comparison of Four Serological Assays and Culture to Determine Tuberculosis Infection in Captive Elephants in Nepal [abstract]. American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. p. 25.
Our team conducted the first comprehensive range country elephant TB survey in January 2006. This collaboration encompassed the work of Dr. Kamal Giri in fulfillment of his M.V.Sc degree at the Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science; the support of the Department of National Parks and Conservation and Tufts Center for Conservation Medicine; and the ongoing Elephant TB Initiative of Elephant Care International.
We examined 120 captive elephants and compared results of four serological tests (ElephantTB Stat-Pak®, MultiAntigen Print ImmunoAssay (MAPIA)™, and Immunoblot) with culture results from laboratories in Nepal and the U.S. A total of 289 culture samples were collected from 119 elephants; blood was collected from 115 elephants. Cultures were processed at the National Tuberculosis Center (Nepal) and the National Veterinary Services Laboratories (USA).
Results of culture (4 positive), ElephantTB Stat-Pak® and MAPIA 6 positive; 9 suspect), ELISA (8 positive; 2 suspect) and Immunoblot (0 positive) were evaluated to place elephants into the following categories:
1) high risk: tests suggest or confirm TB
2) low risk: elephants are test negative or equivocal
3) undetermined risk: no blood sample obtained
Results suggest an approximate prevalence of 13%, comparable to the prevalence among Asian elephants in the U.S.
As a preliminary management strategy, we recommended segregation of high risk elephants, repeat testing of elephants with equivocal results, screening all remaining captive elephants in Nepal, and TB screening of all mahouts.
Acknowledgments: The authors gratefully acknowledge the cooperation of the Nepal Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, and support from the Abraham Foundation, the Mazuri Fund, the Walter J. Ernst Memorial Fund, the American Veterinary Medical Foundation, and the Dodge Foundation.