DEVELOPMENT & MAINTENANCE OF FLAVOR & SHELF-LIFE IN PEANUTS THROUGH IMPROVED HANDLING, PROCESSING AND USE OF GENETIC RESOURCES
Location: Market Quality and Handling Research
Title: Genotype-by-Environment Interactions for Flavor Attributes of Breeding Lines in the Uniform Peanut Performance Test
Submitted to: Peanut Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: April 5, 2007
Publication Date: April 19, 2007
Citation: Isleib, T.G., Tillman, B.L., Pattee, H.E., Sanders, T.H., Hendrix, K., Dean, L.L. 2007. Genotype-by-Environment Interactions for Flavor Attributes of Breeding Lines in the Uniform Peanut Performance Test. Peanut Science. 220.127.116.11 (under downloads), (2008) 35:55-60.
Interpretive Summary: Interpretive Summary: The sensory data provided by the USDA-ARS for the Uniform Peanut Performance Trials (UPPT) was subjected to a series of statistical tests. From these, it was found that variations due to genetic variation were not very large compared to the influence of the growing environment. The intensities of the roast peanut flavor and sweetness as well as roast color were found to varying based on year to year variation. Due to these effects, breeders will be able to choose plant lines for sweet attribute intensities but will not easily be able to select for roast peanut flavor.
Peanut flavor is influenced by several groups of factors: environmental, genetic, and interaction between them. In order to ascertain the relative contributions of these factors, data from the USDA-ARS program of sensory quality testing of samples from the multi-state Uniform Peanut Performance Tests (UPPT) were subjected to restricted maximum likelihood estimation of variance components reflecting the effects of year, production region, year-by-region interaction, location within regions, year-by-location interaction in region, genotype, year-by-genotype interaction, region-by-genotype interaction, year-by-region-by-genotype interaction, location-by-genotype interaction in region, year-by-location-by-genotype interaction in region, kernel grade within genotype, year-by-grade interaction in genotype, region-by-grade interaction in genotype, year-by-region-by-grade interaction in genotype, location-by-grade interaction in region and genotype. Genetic variation was relatively small (0.0 to 9.5% of total variation) while environmental variation, particularly that due to years, was large. Year-by-genotype interaction was large for roast color and intensities of the roasted peanut and sweet aromatic attributes. Repeatability (R) for sensory attributes were low, even based on means measured across multiple locations and two years, except for that of the sweet attribute (R=0.10 for a single observation and 0.34 for a mean across two years of UPPT testing). Breeders should be able to reliably identify lines with superior sweet attribute intensity, but identification of lines with intense roasted peanut attribute will be more difficult.