Submitted to: Annual Conference on Vaccine Research
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: March 17, 2007
Publication Date: April 30, 2007
Citation: Swayne, D.E., Suarez, D.L. 2007. Avian influenza vaccines and vaccination for poultry [abstract]. In: Abstracts of the 10th Annual Conference on Vaccine Research, April 30-May 2, 2007, Baltimore, Maryland. p. 49. Technical Abstract: Vaccines against avian influenza (AI) have had more limited use in poultry than vaccines against other poultry diseases such as Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bronchitis, and have been used more commonly in the developing world. Over the past 40 years, AI vaccines have been primarily based on low or high pathogenicity (HP) AI viruses obtained from field outbreaks that were grown in embryonating chicken eggs, chemically inactivated, emulsified in mineral oil adjuvant and injected into individual birds. Recently, fowlpox and avian paramyxovirus type 1 vectored vaccines with AI H5 gene inserts (+ or - N1 gene insert) have been developed and licensed in some countries, but they also required individual bird injection. Advances in biotechnologies may overcome some existing limitations and result in vaccines that can be grown in tissue culture systems for more rapid vaccine production; provide optimized protection as the result of closer genetic relationship to field viruses; can be mass applied by aerosol, drinking water, or in ovo administration; and provide easier strategies for identifying infected birds within vaccinated populations; i.e. DIVA. These rising technologies include AI viruses with partial gene deletions, AI-ND virus chimeras and vectored vaccines using adenoviruses, Marek’s disease, or sub-unit vaccines. These new technologies will be licensed only after demonstration of purity, safety, efficacy, and potency against AI viruses, and limited ability to transmit to naïve poultry. Their potential use in the field will also be determined on the requirement for low cost vaccines to be economically competitive.