Submitted to: Areawide IPM: Theory to Implementation
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: September 28, 2007
Publication Date: April 1, 2008
Citation: Knight, A.L. 2008. Codling Moth Areawide IPM. pp. 159-190. In: Areawide Pest Management Theory and Implementation. O.Koul, G.Cupernus, N. Elliott (eds.) CAB International, Oxfordshire, UK. Interpretive Summary: An areawide IPM approach for apple and pear production has been suggested to be a more effective strategy for growers to combat codling moth and other orchard pests. This approach utilizes the application of sex pheromone for mating disruption of codling moth and selective insecticides for secondary pests over large contiguous areas of production and requires more intensive monitoring and grower coordination. A five-year program was funded by the Agricultural Research Service from 1995-1999 and established 22 projects involving 533 growers farming 9763 hectares. Research entomologists with USDA and land-grant universities in Washington, Oregon, and California worked together to make this project a success. Growers reduced their use of broad spectrum insecticides 75% and their overall levels of fruit injury. The success of this project spurred the continued adoption of sex pheromones and facilitated the use of more biointensive pest management programs.
Technical Abstract: The Agriculture Research Service funded a five-year multi-institutional project to implement the use of sex pheromones for codling moth in conjunction with the use of other selective control strategies for secondary pests across large contiguous areas of pome fruit production. Twenty-two sites were established in Washington, Oregon, California, and Colorado from 1995 to 1999 involving 533 growers farming 9763 hectares. Growers in the project reduced their use of broad spectrum insecticides nearly 80% while also reducing levels of fruit injury from codling moth. New pest problems developed in some treated orchards and the role of biological control increased only marginally. Following the end of governmental support grower adoption of sex pheromones has continued to increase but few coordinated grower projects remain. Concerns for the evolution of resistance to new insecticides and their impact on biological control remain important for the successful implementation of sustainable IPM programs in pome fruit.