Submitted to: Memoirs of the American Entomological Society
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: March 15, 2008
Publication Date: September 15, 2008
Citation: Gagne, R.J., Solis, M.A. 2008. The Gall Midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) of Hickories (Juglandaceae: Carya). Memoirs of the American Entomological Society. 48:1-147.
Interpretive Summary: Hickory nut trees include pecan trees as well as other species of economic importance. They are used for their strong, resilient wood and for charcoal, and provide important wildlife food. These trees are host to many species of plant-feeding gall midges whose distribution or impact on their hosts was unknown. A detailed, comprehensive survey was made of the various kinds of gall midge damage to hickories across their entire host and distribution ranges to identify all stages of the insects and determine their niches, variety, damage, and specificity. Results show that the 63 species now known to occur on hickory, including 49 species new to science, are specific to one or both groups of hickories but do not differentiate among the various host species within a group. The results, including the keys to identification, will support further work by biologists on other facets of the biology and pest assessment.
This monograph treats the 63 species of gall midges that feed on North American hickories. Previously named species are redescribed, except for four relegated to junior synonymy. One species is renamed and a new genus is described for another. One other new genus is erected and 49 species are described as new to science. The distribution and history of hickories are outlined. Morphology, relationships, distribution, and biology of the gall midge taxa are treated in turn. Keys for the identification of hickory galls made by gall midges and to larvae of cecidomyiids on hickories are provided.