EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT AND USE OF ANIMAL MANURE TO PROTECT HUMAN HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY
Location: Animal Waste Management Research
Title: Spatial Variability of Ammonia Production in Poultry House: Biological, Chemical, and Physical Effects at Microscale.
Submitted to: International Ammonia Conference in Agriculture
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: March 17, 2007
Publication Date: March 18, 2007
Citation: Lovanh, N.C., Cook, K.L., Rothrock Jr, M.J., Miles, D.M., Sistani, K.R. 2007. Spatial Variability of Ammonia Production in Poultry House: Biological, Chemical, and Physical Effects at Microscale.. International Ammonia Conference in Agriculture.
Understanding factors that affect ammonia emissions in poultry houses is a necessary first step in deploying potential remediation options. In this study, we examined the various factors (i.e., biological, physical, and chemical factors) that potentially affect ammonia emissions in a poultry house. Litter samples were taken in a 36-point grid pattern at 5 m across and 12 m down a 146 m by 12.8 m chicken house. At each sample point, ammonia flux estimates were made, litter moisture and pH were determined, temperature and humidity were recorded, trace minerals and nutrients were analyzed, and activities of urease enzyme were determined using RT-PCR. Principal component analysis of these physical, chemical and biological factors (ca. 22 factors or variables) was carried out to determine the most important factors affecting the ammonia emission. Statistical analyses confirmed that ammonia emissions in a poultry house were, to a large degree, affected by sampling location, relative humidity, litter temperature, concentrations of urease enzyme, and trace minerals and nutrients (i.e., Fe, Pb, Ca, P, and N). Based on these data, biological as well as chemical and physical factors play a major role in ammonia emissions. Thus, understanding the contributing factors in ammonia emissions may provide a rational basis for improving the design and optimizing the remediation options for ammonia reduction, whether it involves biological treatment such as enzyme inhibition or physicochemical treatment such as alum amendment.