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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: MINIMIZING THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF LIVESTOCK MANURES USING INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT REGIMENS

Location: Renewable Energy and Manure Management Research

Title: Effects of graded levels of sorghum wet distiller's grains and degraded intake protein on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle fed steam-flaked corn based diets

Authors
item Vasconcelos, Judson - TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY
item Shaw, Landon - TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY
item Lemon, K. - TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY
item Cole, Noel
item Galyean, Michael - TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY

Submitted to: Professional Animal Scientist
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: May 17, 2007
Publication Date: September 1, 2007
Citation: Vasconcelos, J.T., Shaw, L.M., Lemon, K.A., Cole, N.A., Galyean, M.L. 2007. Effects of graded levels of sorghum wet distiller's grains and degraded intake protein on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle fed steam-flaked corn based diets. The Professional Animal Scientist. 23(2007):467-475.

Interpretive Summary: Because of the rapid increase in the production of fuel-ethanol from feed grains, the availability of distiller's grains, a by-product of the distilling process, has increased dramatically. Most of the ethanol plants in the United States are in the northern Great Plains and Corn Belt; therefore, most of the research on the feeding of distiller's grains has been conducted in those areas. However, at least 6 large ethanol plants are planned for the Texas Panhandle in the next 2 years; 4 are currently under construction. These new plants may use more sorghum grain in the process. In addition, feedlot diets fed in the Southern Plains tend to differ from those fed in the Northern Plains. Corn in Northern Plains feedlots is normally dry-rolled; whereas, it is steam-flaked in Southern Plains feedyards. Therefore, two studies were conducted to determine the feeding value of sorghum- and corn-based distiller's grains fed to finishing cattle in steam-flaked corn- based diets. In Experiment 1, 200 steers (average BW = 404 kg) were fed increasing levels of wet sorghum-based distiller's grains (0, 5, 10, and 15% of DM) and one level of corn-based wet distiller's grains (10% of DM) in a high-concentrate diet. Overall average daily gain and gain:feed decreased linearly with increasing levels of distiller's grains. No differences were observed in overall dry matter intake. Dry matter intake and gain:feed were similar for corn-based and sorghum-based distillers’ grains. In Experiment 2, 200 steers (average BW = 369 kg) were either fed a control diet without distiller's grains or three 10% SWDG diets with no urea added (0DIP) or 50 (50DIP) and 100% (100DIP) of the difference in the degraded intake protein (DIP) concentration between the 0DIP and control diets added as urea. Overall, average daily gain and gain:feed were superior for cattle fed the control diet. A linear decrease was observed in overall dry matter intake and average daily gain with increasing DIP. Results from both experiments suggest decreased performance and carcass value with increasing levels of wet distiller's grains either alone or combined with additional DIP. At 10% of the dietary DM, corn and sorghum wet distiller's grains resulted in similar ADG and G:F.

Technical Abstract: Two experiments evaluated different levels of sorghum wet distiller's grains (SWDG) and effects of increasing levels of degraded intake protein (DIP) in SWDG on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle. In Experiment 1, 200 steers (average BW = 404 kg) were fed increasing levels of SWDG (0, 5, 10, and 15% of DM) and one level of corn WDG (10% of DM) replacing steam-flaked corn in a high-concentrate diet. Final BW (P = 0.04) and overall ADG (P = 0.01) decreased linearly with increasing levels of SWDG. Increasing SWDG decreased overall G:F (P = 0.01), HCW (P <0.01), and longissimus muscle area (P < 0.01). No differences were observed in overall DMI (P = 0.15) and other carcass characteristics (P >/= 0.09). Neither DMI nor G:F differed between corn WDG and SWDG when fed as 10% of the dietary DM. In Experiment 2, 200 steers (average BW = 369 kg) were either fed a control diet without SWDG or three 10% SWDG diets with no urea added (0DIP) or 50 (50DIP) and 100% (100DIP) of the difference in the DIP concentration between the 0DIP and control diets added as urea. Final BW (P = 0.03), overall ADG (P = 0.04), and overall G:F (P = 0.05) were superior for cattle fed the control diet. A linear decrease was observed in overall DMI with increasing DIP (P = 0.02). Likewise, overall ADG decreased with increasing DIP levels (P = 0.08). Cattle fed the control diet had greater HCW (P = 0.03), fat thickness (P = 0.02), and yield grade (P = 0.01) than those fed the three SWDG diets. Results from both experiments suggest decreased performance and carcass value with increasing levels of SWDG alone or combined with additional DIP. At 10% of the dietary DM, corn and sorghum wet distiller’s grains resulted in similar ADG and G:F.

Last Modified: 4/16/2014
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