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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Vector Specificity of Criniviruses in Tomato and Virus Competitiveness During Mixed Infection.

Author
item Wintermantel, William

Submitted to: Bemisia International Workshop Proceedings
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: July 27, 2006
Publication Date: December 3, 2006
Citation: Wintermantel, W.M. 2006. Vector Specificity of Criniviruses in Tomato and Virus Competitiveness During Mixed Infection. Bemisia International Workshop Proceedings.

Interpretive Summary: Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV), family Closteroviridae, genus Crinivirus, causes interveinal chlorosis, leaf brittleness and limited necrotic flecking or leaf bronzing on tomato leaves. ToCV can cause a decline in plant vigor and reduce fruit yield: it is emerging as a serious production problem for field and greenhouse tomato growers, and has been increasing in prevalence in many parts of the world. ToCV has a moderately wide host range, infecting 24 host plant species in seven families. The virus is uniques among know whitefly-transmitted viruses, due to its ability to be transmitted by four whitefly vectors from two genera. Studies demonstrated that transmission efficiency and virus persistence in the vector varies significantly among the different whitefly vectors. Trialeurodes abutilonea and Bemisia tabaci biotype B are highly efficient vectors of ToCV. B. tabaci biotype A and T. vaporariorum are less efficient vectors, but are fully capable of transmission. ToCV persists for up to 5 days in T. abutilonea, 2 days in B. tabaci biotype B, and only 1 day in B. tabaci biotype A and T. vaporariorum. ToCV is closely related to another crinivirus, Tomato infectious chlorosis crinivirus (TICV). TICV and ToCV produce identical symptoms on tomato, but TICV differs from ToCV in that it is transmitted exclusively by T. vaporariorum. Geographical distribution of TICV and ToCV depends on distribution of the whitefly vectors. In some parts of the world both viruses have been found together in tomato, indicating that infection by one crinivirus does not prevent infection by a second. Crinivirus epidemiology is impacted not only by vector-movement of viruses, but also by factors such as virus competitiveness in host plants. It is likely that competitiveness of each virus varies among different host plant species, and may be influenced by factors such as plant age or which virus became established first. Alternatively, co-infection may increase the potential for genetic recombination or pseudo-recombination between related crinivirus species, and may contribute to selection pressure leading to emergence of new strains or species with altered host range, symptomatology or vector specificity. In order to elucidate the effects of co-infection on crinivirus vector specificity and accumulation, were established Physalis wrightii and Nicotiana benthamiana source plants, containing either TICV alone, ToCV alone, or both viruses together. T. vaporariorum and T. abutilonea were allowed to feed separately on all virus sources, as well as virus-free plants for 24 hours, and then were transferred to young host plants. Symptomatic plants were tested by northern hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR, and indicated some host-specific difference in accumulation by TICV and ToCV. Interestingly, transmission of TICV from mixed infections by the non-vector, T. abutilonea was confirmed in two of fifty-six plants.

Technical Abstract: Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV), family Closteroviridae, genus Crinivirus, causes interveinal chlorosis, leaf brittleness and limited necrotic flecking or leaf bronzing on tomato leaves. ToCV can cause a decline in plant vigor and reduce fruit yield: it is emerging as a serious production problem for field and greenhouse tomato growers, and has been increasing in prevalence in many parts of the world. ToCV has a moderately wide host range, infecting 24 host plant species in seven families. The virus is uniques among know whitefly-transmitted viruses, due to its ability to be transmitted by four whitefly vectors from two genera. Studies demonstrated that transmission efficiency and virus persistence in the vector varies significantly among the different whitefly vectors. Trialeurodes abutilonea and Bemisia tabaci biotype B are highly efficient vectors of ToCV. B. tabaci biotype A and T. vaporariorum are less efficient vectors, but are fully capable of transmission. ToCV persists for up to 5 days in T. abutilonea, 2 days in B. tabaci biotype B, and only 1 day in B. tabaci biotype A and T. vaporariorum. ToCV is closely related to another crinivirus, Tomato infectious chlorosis crinivirus (TICV). TICV and ToCV produce identical symptoms on tomato, but TICV differs from ToCV in that it is transmitted exclusively by T. vaporariorum. Geographical distribution of TICV and ToCV depends on distribution of the whitefly vectors. In some parts of the world both viruses have been found together in tomato, indicating that infection by one crinivirus does not prevent infection by a second. Crinivirus epidemiology is impacted not only by vector-movement of viruses, but also by factors such as virus competitiveness in host plants. It is likely that competitiveness of each virus varies among different host plant species, and may be influenced by factors such as plant age or which virus became established first. Alternatively, co-infection may increase the potential for genetic recombination or pseudo-recombination between related crinivirus species, and may contribute to selection pressure leading to emergence of new strains or species with altered host range, symptomatology or vector specificity. In order to elucidate the effects of co-infection on crinivirus vector specificity and accumulation, were established Physalis wrightii and Nicotiana benthamiana source plants, containing either TICV alone, ToCV alone, or both viruses together. T. vaporariorum and T. abutilonea were allowed to feed separately on all virus sources, as well as virus-free plants for 24 hours, and then were transferred to young host plants. Symptomatic plants were tested by northern hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR, and indicated some host-specific difference in accumulation by TICV and ToCV. Interestingly, transmission of TICV from mixed infections by the non-vector, T. abutilonea was confirmed in two of fifty-six plants.

Last Modified: 11/23/2014
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