Page Banner

United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Molecular Epidemiology of Vesicular Stomatitis New Jersey Virus from the 2004-2005 United States Outbreak Indicates a Common Origin with Mexico Strains

Authors
item Rainwater-Lovett, Kaitlin - ORISE, USDA, ARS, PIADC
item Pauszek, Steven
item Kelley, William - USDA, APHIS, FT COLLINS
item Rodriguez, Luis

Submitted to: Journal of General Virology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: March 6, 2007
Publication Date: July 1, 2007
Citation: Rainwater-Lovett, K., Pauszek, S.J., Kelley, W.N., Rodriguez, L.L. 2007. Molecular Epidemiology of Vesicular Stomatitis New Jersey Virus from the 2004-2005 United States Outbreak Indicates a Common Origin with Mexico Strains. Journal of General Virology. 88 (Pt7): 2042-51.

Interpretive Summary: Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is an important disease of cattle, horses and swine caused by a virus known as vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Outbreaks of VS occur at 8-10 year intervals in the southwestern United States (US) with the most recent outbreak starting in 2004 and continuing in 2005. Because its clinical sign resemble those of foot-and-mouth disease in cattle and swine, VS is an OIE reportable disease. The origin of the viruses causing outbreaks and the mechanism of persistence introduction into the US remain unknown. This manuscript describes the genetic analysis and phylogenetic relationships among 116 vesicular stomatitis-New Jersey virus (VSNJV) isolates obtained from the 2004-2005 outbreak and compares them with those from areas in Mexico, where VS is endemic. The data showed that all USA viruses originated from a virus that was found circulating in Mexico as early as 2002. Spatial and temporal analyses of VSNJV isolates showed a south-to-north migration along river-valley systems in the US from spring to fall in 2004 and 2005, suggesting a single introduction and subsequent northern movement of this virus. We also found genetic evidence that the virus was adapting during the outbreak and a single virus strain overwintered and reappeared in 2005 in Wyoming, Montana and Nebraska. Taken together these data demonstrate that vesicular stomatitis outbreaks in the southwestern US are the result of the introduction of single viral genetic lineages from endemic areas in Mexico.

Technical Abstract: Outbreaks of vesicular stomatitis occur at 8-10 year intervals in the southwestern United States (US) with the most recent outbreak starting in 2004 and continuing in 2005. Phylogenetic relationships among 116 vesicular stomatitis-New Jersey virus (VSNJV) isolates obtained from this outbreak and endemic areas in Mexico were determined utilizing nucleotide sequences from the hypervariable region of phosphoprotein (P) gene. All 69 US isolates showed little sequence divergence (less than 1.3%) regardless of their location or time of isolation and clustered with eleven Mexico isolates into a viral lineage not previously present in the US. Furthermore, viruses with identical P hypervariable region sequences to those causing US outbreaks in 1995 – 1997 and 2004 – 2005 were found circulating in Mexico between the years 2003 and 2004. Spatial and temporal analyses of VSNJV isolates showed a south-to-north migration along river-valley systems in the US from spring to fall in 2004 and 2005. Analyses for detecting molecular adaptation among isolates from the US (n = 69) provided evidence for positive selection in both the P and G genes. This selection was most noticeable in a viral lineage emerging during 2005 in Wyoming and Nebraska. Phylogenetic data, temporal-spatial distribution and the finding of viral strains identical to those causing major outbreaks in the US circulating in Mexico demonstrate that vesicular stomatitis outbreaks in the southwestern US are the result of the introduction of single viral genetic lineages from endemic areas in Mexico.

Last Modified: 4/18/2014
Footer Content Back to Top of Page