Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: January 1, 2007
Publication Date: July 10, 2008
Citation: Hurkman II, W.J., Vensel, W.H., Dupont, F.M., Altenbach, S.B., Buchanan, B.B. 2008. Endosperm and Amyloplast Proteomes of Wheat Grain. In: Agrawal, G.K. and Rakwal, R., editors. Plant Proteomics: Technologies, Strategies, and Applictions. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ. p. 207-222. Interpretive Summary: Characterization of the wheat endosperm proteome is important for understanding and improving flour quality. Because of its unique protein composition, wheat flour is the main ingredient in most types of breads, pastries, and pasta worldwide. Advances in proteomics and genomics have improved our understanding of the gluten proteins, endosperm proteins that have unique elasticity and extensibility properties that determine flour functionality. Proteomic approaches utilizing 2-DE have provided new insights into protein composition of the endosperm, processes involved in grain development, effects of environment on grain fill, and potential markers for genotype identification and stress tolerance. In addition, identification of amyloplast proteins revealed that these specialized starch biosynthetic organelles are involved in a wider range of metabolic activities than previously recognized. Proteomic research will continue to be utilized to better understand the manner in which environment impacts the biosynthesis and accumulation of protein and starch in the endosperm and, ultimately, the quality of the flour.
Technical Abstract: Advances in proteomics and genomics have improved our understanding of the gluten proteins, a complex and functionally important protein group. Proteomic approaches also have been used to identify other proteins that may play roles in wheat flour functionality, to assign genes for gluten proteins to specific chromosomes, to evaluate protein accumulation profiles during grain development, to investigate redox regulation in the endosperm, to distinguish different wheat varieties, to provide insight into changes in the proteome that occur during grain development as a result of environmental conditions, and to identify proteins and metabolic pathways in amyloplasts. Proteomics research is leading to a better understanding of the manner in which environment impacts the biosynthesis and accumulation of protein and starch in the endosperm and, ultimately, the quality of the flour.