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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: REDUCING THE ALLERGENIC PROPERTIES OF PEANUTS

Location: Food Processing and Sensory Quality Research

Title: The effects of processing methods on allergenic properties of food proteins.

Authors
item Maleki, Soheila
item Sathe, S.K. - FLORIDA STATE UNIV.

Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: June 15, 2005
Publication Date: December 1, 2006
Citation: Maleki, S.J., Sathe, S. 2006. The effects of processing methods on allergenic properties of food proteins. Society of Microbiology. 309-322.

Interpretive Summary: Food allergies are increasing in developed countries, and some evidence indicates in less studied developing countries (i.e. Perr et al., 2004; Pereira et al., 2002, Visitsunthorn et al., 2002; Wang et al., 2005; Pitche et al., 1996, Hill et al., 1999). With the globalization of markets and trade, many new foods, or foods processed in novel ways, are introduced into our daily diet. Most allergenic proteins, particularly plant allergens, appear to be members of a few families of proteins and share common characteristics that may render them allergenic (Jenkins et al., 2004; Radauer 2006), although not all of these properties are well defined. The food source and the different methods of storing and processing foods complicate analysis of the structural and functional properties of allergens that contribute to enhanced or reduced allergenicity (reviewed in Maleki et al., 2004). Furthermore, foods are often processed in combination with other food ingredients that can result in biochemical interactions among the different proteins and ingredients in that food. These biochemical interactions may result in the generation of new (or cryptic) proteins and peptides, and novel fusions of sugars or other compounds and proteins. Adding to this conundrum, the genetic variation among individuals and differential allergic response by sensitive individuals to allergic proteins in foods, the issue of what makes a protein an allergen or a more potent allergen becomes highly complex. In order to elicit IgE mediated allergenic response, the allergen must cross-link IgE molecules on the surface of mediator release cells. Patient IgE may recognize linear stretches of amino acid sequence (linear epitope), or a three dimensional structural motif (conformational epitope) on an allergen. Understanding the IgE-allergen protein interaction at the molecular level, is therefore important in designing ways to reduce or eliminate allergenicity. However, most allergens, before or after processing, remain to be characterized at the molecular level. In this chapter, we will attempt to describe some of the structural and molecular components that contribute to allergenicity of proteins and foods, and the processes involved in altering the allergenicity of food proteins. Also, we will address possible options for the reduction in the allergenicity of foods.

Technical Abstract: Food allergies are increasing in developed countries, and some evidence indicates in less studied developing countries (i.e. Perr et al., 2004; Pereira et al., 2002, Visitsunthorn et al., 2002; Wang et al., 2005; Pitche et al., 1996, Hill et al., 1999). With the globalization of markets and trade, many new foods, or foods processed in novel ways, are introduced into our daily diet. Most allergenic proteins, particularly plant allergens, appear to be members of a few families of proteins and share common characteristics that may render them allergenic (Jenkins et al., 2004; Radauer 2006), although not all of these properties are well defined. The food source and the different methods of storing and processing foods complicate analysis of the structural and functional properties of allergens that contribute to enhanced or reduced allergenicity (reviewed in Maleki et al., 2004). Furthermore, foods are often processed in combination with other food ingredients that can result in biochemical interactions among the different proteins and ingredients in that food. These biochemical interactions may result in the generation of new (or cryptic) proteins and peptides, and novel fusions of sugars or other compounds and proteins. Adding to this conundrum, the genetic variation among individuals and differential allergic response by sensitive individuals to allergic proteins in foods, the issue of what makes a protein an allergen or a more potent allergen becomes highly complex. In order to elicit IgE mediated allergenic response, the allergen must cross-link IgE molecules on the surface of mediator release cells. Patient IgE may recognize linear stretches of amino acid sequence (linear epitope), or a three dimensional structural motif (conformational epitope) on an allergen. Understanding the IgE-allergen protein interaction at the molecular level, is therefore important in designing ways to reduce or eliminate allergenicity. However, most allergens, before or after processing, remain to be characterized at the molecular level. In this chapter, we will attempt to describe some of the structural and molecular components that contribute to allergenicity of proteins and foods, and the processes involved in altering the allergenicity of food proteins. Also, we will address possible options for the reduction in the allergenicity of foods.

Last Modified: 7/30/2014