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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Gastrointestinal Maturation is Accelerated in Turkey Poults Supplemented with a Mannan-Oligosaccharide Yeast Extract (Alphamune)

Authors
item Santos, Fausto DE Los - UNIV OF ARKANSAS
item Donoghue, Ann
item Farnell, Morgan - TEXAS A&M
item Huff, Geraldine
item Huff, William

Submitted to: Poultry Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: January 8, 2007
Publication Date: April 18, 2007
Citation: Santos, F., Donoghue, A.M., Farnell, M., Huff, G.R., Huff, W.E. 2007. Gastrointestinal maturation is accelerated in turkey poults supplemented with a mannan-oligosaccharide yeast extract (Alphamune). Poultry Science. 86:921-930.

Interpretive Summary: Alphamune™, a yeast extract antibiotic alternative, has been shown to stimulate the immune system, increase body weight in pigs, and reduce Salmonella colonization in chickens. The influence of Alphamune™ on gastrointestinal tract development has not been reported. Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of Alphamune™ on gut maturation in turkey poults. Results suggest that feed supplemented with Alphamune™ can accelerate gastrointestinal maturation in turkey poults and is more pronounced in the ileum than in other portions of the small intestine.

Technical Abstract: Alphamune™, a yeast extract antibiotic alternative, has been shown to stimulate the immune system, increase body weight in pigs, and reduce Salmonella colonization in chickens. The influence of Alphamune™ on gastrointestinal tract development has not been reported. Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of Alphamune™ on gut maturation of 7 and 21 d old turkey poults. Poults were fed a standard control unmedicated turkey starter diet or the same diet supplemented with either 1 lb/ton or 2 lb/ton Alphamune™ (n = 18/group). Poults were weighed on d 7 and 21, euthanized, and a 2-cm section was collected from the mid-point of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum of each bird (9 poults/day/treatment) and fixed in a 10% formalin solution for 72 h and then stained. Twenty measurements of villus height, villus surface area, lamina propria thickness, crypt depth and density of neutral, sialomucins, and sulfomucin goblet cells were taken per section per poult. On d 7, BW were higher for the Alphamune™ treatments compared to controls, however, no differences were observed on day 21. Alphamune™ supplementation influenced intestinal morphology differently based on gut location. Ileum villus height, surface area, lamina propria thickness, crypt depth and neutral, sialomucins and sulfomucin goblet cell density were enhanced with Alphamune™ treatments on d 7 and 21 and in a dose dependent manner for many of the parameters evaluated. Jejunum results were mixed. Surface area, crypt depth and sialomucins and sulfomucin goblet cells were consistently higher for the 2 lb/ton Alphamune™ groups compared to controls on d 7 and 21. Duodenum villus height, surface area, and goblet cell density were higher for the 2 lb/ton Alphamune™ groups on d 7, however intestinal morphology of the duodenum was not different between the controls and treated birds on d 21. These results suggest that feed supplemented with Alphamune™ can accelerate gastrointestinal maturation in turkey poults and is more pronounced in the ileum than in other portions of the small intestine.

Last Modified: 11/28/2014