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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Determination of Cooking Yields and Nutrient Retention Factors of Choline in Meat Products

Authors
item SHOWELL, BETHANY
item Howe, Juliette
item Williams, J - NATIONAL PORK BOARD
item HOLDEN, JOANNE
item Zeisel, S - UNIV OF NORTH CAROLINA

Submitted to: Experimental Biology
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: November 7, 2006
Publication Date: April 25, 2007
Citation: Showell, B.A., Howe, J.C., Williams, J., Holden, J.M., Zeisel, S. 2007. Determination of Cooking Yields and Nutrient Retention Factors of Choline in Meat Products. Experimental Biology, April 25, 2007, Washington, D.C.

Technical Abstract: USDA’s recent research shows that meat products are good sources of choline. During cooking, nutrient levels are affected by moisture and fat losses and may be reduced by heating. To determine the impact of cooking on choline retention in meats, four nationwide composite samples of beef, bacon, cured hams, fresh pork, chicken, sausages, and variety meats were prepared from products purchased in 12 U.S. cities using a probability sampling plan. Raw and cooked samples were weighed and analyzed for choline. Cooking yields (CY=cooked weight/raw weight*100) were lowest for bacon (~30%), while meat franks and turkey sausage had the highest yields (100%). CY for pork cuts ranged from 64% to 94%. CY for liver, beef chuck cuts, and franks were in good agreement with published data. Nutrient retention factors (RF) are calculated by multiplying the ratio of choline values in cooked and raw portions by the CY for that product. The lowest choline RFs were reported for roasted chicken and assorted livers (68%-74%), while the highest was in turkey sausage (158%). The choline RF for fresh pork ranged from 72% to 123%. Factors for CY and nutrient retention are critical to the calculation of nutrient intake values for cooked foods when no analytical data are available. These results will be included in the USDA Table of Nutrient Retention Factors to be used in surveys for estimating choline consumption in the U.S. Funded by: USDA & NIH Y1CN5010.

Last Modified: 9/10/2014