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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: MINIMIZING THE ADVERSE HEALTH AND ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF MYCOTOXINS AND PLANT TOXINS IN FOODS Title: The effect of extrusion on the fumonisin content and toxicity of corn grits

Authors
item Voss, Kenneth
item Jackson, Lauren - FDA/CFS&T, SUMMIT-ARGO,IL
item Jablonski, Joseph - FDA/CFS&T, SUMMIT-ARGO,IL
item Bianchini, Andreia - FOOD SCI/U.NE, LINCOLN,NE
item Bullerman, Lloyd - FOOD SCI/U.NE, LINCOLN,NE
item Hanna, Milford - FOOD SCI/U.NE, LINCOLN,NE
item Ryu, Dojin - NUTR./TX WOMANS U.,DENTON

Submitted to: US-Japan Coop Pgm on Dev and Util of Natural Products Abstracts Proceedings
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: November 7, 2006
Publication Date: November 7, 2006
Citation: Voss, K.A., Jackson, L.S., Jablonski, J., Bianchini, A., Bullerman, L.B., Hanna, M.A., Ryu, D. 2006. The effect of extrusion on the fumonisin content and toxicity of corn grits. US-Japan Coop Pgm on Dev and Util of Natural Products Abstracts Proceedings. November 7-9,2006. Washington, DC.

Interpretive Summary: Abstract - no summary required.

Technical Abstract: Extrusion cooking reduces fumonisin concentrations in corn; however, the nature and toxicity of fumonisin reaction products in food matrices are not well understood. Corn grits were contaminated by spiking with fumonisin B1 (FB1) (Spiked grits = SG, 43 nmol/g dry wt FB1; measured by LC-MS) or by fermentation with fumonisin-producing Fusarium (Fermented grits = FG1, 46 nmol/g FB1; and FG2, 67 nmol/g FB1) and then extruded with or without 10% w/w glucose supplementation. FB1 concentrations of the extruded SG (E-SG), the extruded FG1 (E-FG1) and the extruded FG2 (E-FG2) were 34 nmol/g (21% reduction), 29 nmol/g (37% reduction), and 51 nmol/g (24% reduction). Glucose supplementation increased reductions: the respective FB1 concentrations of the E-SG plus glucose (E-SG+), E-FG1 plus glucose (E-FG1+) and E-FG2 plus glucose (E-FG2+) extrusion products were 9.8 nmol/g (77% reduction), 5.9 nmol/g (87%), and 11.7 nmol/g (83%). Significant amounts (20-38 nmol/g) of the known FB1-glucose reaction product, N-(deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl) FB1 were found in the glucose-supplemented products only. Mass balance recovery estimates of FB1 plus the reaction products hydrolyzed FB1 and N-(deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl) FB1 after extrusion were: E-SG = 83%, E-SG+ = 108%, E-FG1 = 65%, EFG1+ = 56%, E-FG2 = 78% and E-FG2+ = 68%. SG, FG1 or FG2 and equivalent weights of their extruded materials were fed (50% w/w in the diet; corrected for moisture content) to male rats for 3 weeks to assess toxicity. Control groups were fed 50% w/w uncontaminated grits or extruded uncontaminated grits. Nominal FB1 concentrations in the formulated diets were: SG = 17.8 micro-mol/kg, E-SG = 14.0 micro-mol/kg, E-SG+ = 3.95 micro-mol/kg; FG1 = 18.6 micro-mol/kg, E-FG1 = 11.9 micro-mol/kg, E-FG1+ = 2.35 micro-mol/kg; FG2 = 27.1 micro-mol/kg, E-FG2 = 20.5 micro-mol/kg and E-FG2+ = 4.71 micro-mol/kg. Control diets contained < 0.04 micro-mol/kg. Relative kidney weights of rats fed E-FG1+ (0.83% BWt) and the two control diets (0.79-0.82% BWt) were similar and greater than those of the other groups (0.72-0.76% BWt). Microscopic kidney lesions were found in all groups except the two controls and they were morphologically typical of those caused by FB1. Lesions in rats fed E-FG1+ were less severe (mean severity score = 1.2) than those fed FG1 or E-FG1 (3.0). In contrast, glucose supplementation did not reduce toxicity of the other two materials. Kidney pathology scores of rats fed SG, E-SG, or E-SG+ and FG2, E-FG2 or E-FG2+ were comparable (group mean score = 2.6 - 3.0) to those fed FG1 or E-FG1. In summary, extrusion with glucose supplementation significantly reduced FB1 concentrations in spiked or fermented corn grits, 77 to 87%, but reduced the toxicity of only one (FG1) of the three materials tested in a rat feeding bioassay. Further evaluations are needed to determine how fumonisins interact with food matrices and if extrusion is a practical method for reducing fumonisins in feeds and foods.

Last Modified: 12/22/2014
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