Location: Aquatic Animal Health Research
Title: Are there Economic Advantages for the Use of Immune Enhancer Strategies in Aquaculture? Authors
Submitted to: Aquaculture Conference Proceedings
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: December 1, 2006
Publication Date: February 26, 2007
Citation: Klesius, P.H., Lim, C.E., Evans, J.J., Shoemaker, C.A. 2007. Are there Economic Advantages for the Use of Immune Enhancer Strategies in Aquaculture? Aquaculture Conference Proceedings. Aquaculture 2007. February 26 - March 2, 2007 San Antonio , Texas. p. 473. Technical Abstract: This paper focuses on the perception that immune enhancer strategies provide reduced disease incidence, drug residues and increased growth performance. Disease control and growth performance results are inconsistent on the use of immune enhancers in both experimental and field trials. The uncertainty and skepticism regarding any advantages may be fully justified. Not only are positive effects inconsistent, but added costs must be considered. The perceptive linkage between immune enhancers and disease resistance is based largely on positive effects on in vitro measures of the innate immune mechanisms and stimulation of non-specific antibodies. However, the positive results of innate immune assays most often are not in agreement with the negative results of survival following specific pathogen challenge in both experimental and field trials. Another problematic finding is their inability to stimulate innate immunity response with pathogen-specificity of long-term duration. The lack of cause and effect argues against any disease control and growth advantages of the use of immune enhancers in aquaculture Pathogen-specific immunity or specific-acquired immunity is the most widely recognized prophylactic means of disease control. Disease-resistant mechanisms are highly specific that involve the stimulation of specific antibody production, specific immune cellular responses or both against a pathogen. Vaccination is a widely recognized prophylactic means of disease control, improved growth performance and reduced drug residues. Driven by economic and societal needs, it is an aquaculture research goal to develop adaptable strategies that provide economic benefits that can be documented.