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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: MINIMIZING THE ADVERSE HEALTH AND ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF MYCOTOXINS AND PLANT TOXINS IN FOODS Title: Chemical and toxicological evaluation of fumonisin B1 in extruded corn grits.

item Voss, Kenneth
item Jackson, Lauren - CFST/FDA,SUMMIT ARGO, IL
item Bianchini, Andreia - FOOD SCI/UNE,LINCOLN,NE
item Bullerman, Lloyd - FOOD SCI/UNE,LINCOLN,NE
item Hanna, Milford - FOOD SCI/UNE,LINCOLN,NE
item Dojin, Ryu - TX WOMENS U.,DENTON,TX

Submitted to: Toxicological Sciences
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: December 1, 2006
Publication Date: March 25, 2007
Citation: Voss, K.A., Jackson, L.S., Bianchini, A., Bullerman, L.B., Hanna, M.A., Dojin, R. 2007. Chemical and toxicological evaluation of fumonisin B1 in extruded corn grits. Toxicological Sciences. Abst. 725, p. 138.

Interpretive Summary: Abstract - no summary required.

Technical Abstract: Extrusion cooking reduces fumonisin concentrations in corn but its effect on fumonisin toxicity is unknown. Batches of corn grits were contaminated by spiking with fumonisin B1 (FB1) (SG, 43 ppm) or by fermentation (FG1, 46 ppm FB1; FG2 48 ppm FB1) and then extruded with and without the addition of glucose (10% w/w). FB1 concentrations of extruded SG (E-SG), extruded FG1 (E-FG1) and extruded FG2 (E-FG2) were 34 (31% reduction), 29 (37%), and 51 ppm (no reduction). Glucose increased reductions: FB1 concentrations in E-SG plus glucose (E-SG+), E-FG1 plus glucose (E-FG1+) and E-FG2 plus glucose (E-FG2+) products were 9.8 (77% reduction), 5.9 (87%), and 11.7 ppm (76%), respectively. Significant amounts (20-38 ppm) of the FB1-glucose reaction product, N-(deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl) FB1 were found only in the glucose-supplemented products. SG, FG1 or FG2 (50% w/w in rodent chow) and equivalent weights of each extruded material were fed to male Sprague-Dawley rats for 4 weeks to assess toxicity. Control groups were fed (50% w/w) uncontaminated grits or extruded uncontaminated grits. Relative kidney weights of rats fed E-FG2+ (0.83% BWt) and control diets (0.79-0.82% BWt) were similar and greater than those of the other groups (0.72-0.76% BWt). Microscopic kidney lesions were typical of those caused by FB1. Those found in rats fed E-FG1+ were scored as less severe (mean score = 1.2) than those from groups fed FG1 or E-FG1 (3.0). Comparison of kidney lesions from the SG, E-SG, and E-SG+ or the FG2, E-FG2 and E-FG2+ groups revealed no differences; their histopathology scores averaged 2.6-3.0. In summary, extrusion with glucose significantly reduced FB1 in the grits (>75%) but had an inconsistent effect on in vivo toxicity. Extrusion must be further evaluated to determine if it is a suitable method for reducing fumonisins in foods.

Last Modified: 11/29/2015
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