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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: EPIDEMIOLOGY, ECOLOGY, AND MOLECULAR GENETICS OF ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN PATHOGENIC AND COMMENSAL BACTERIA FROM FOOD ANIMALS Title: Salmonella Enteritidis in Meat, Poultry, and Pasteurized Egg Products Regulated by the U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service, 1998 through 2003

Authors
item White, Patricia - USDA-FSIS
item Naugle, Alecia - USDA-FSIS
item Jackson, Charlene
item Cray, Paula
item Rose, Bonnie - USDA-FSIS
item Pritchard, Katrine - USDA-FSIS
item Levine, Priscilla - USDA-FSIS
item Saini, Parmesh - USDA-FSIS
item Schroeder, Carl - USDA-FSIS
item Dreyfuss, Moshe - USDA-FSIS

Submitted to: Journal of Food Protection
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: October 11, 2006
Publication Date: March 5, 2007
Citation: White, P.L., Naugle, A.L., Jackson, C.R., Cray, P.J., Rose, B.E., Pritchard, K.M., Levine, P., Saini, P.K., Schroeder, C.M., Dreyfuss, M.S. 2007. Salmonella Enteritidis in Meat, Poultry, and Pasteurized Egg Products Regulated by the U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service, 1998 through 2003. Journal of Food Protection. 70(3):582-591.

Interpretive Summary: Salmonella is a zoonotic pathogen which can be transferred from animals to humans, most often through consumption of contaminated food. Infection with Salmonella can cause mild to severe gastroenteritis in humans while infection in food animals is often with clinical signs of disease. The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) tests for Salmonella in meat, poultry, and egg products through three regulatory testing programs: the Pathogen Reduction/Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (PR/HACCP) program, the ready-to-eat (RTE) program for meat and poultry products, and the pasteurized egg products program. From 1998 to 2003, 293,938 samples collected through these testing programs were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella enterica species. Of these, 12,699 (4.3%) were positive for Salmonella and 167 (1.3% of 12,699 Salmonella isolates or 0.06% of all (n=293,938) samples) were identified as S. Enteritidis. Molecular characterization (e.g. DNA-based typing methods) of Salmonella isolates is frequently employed to compare and distinguish clinical isolates recovered from animals, foodborne disease and nosocomial infections. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of 148 S. Enteritidis isolates indicated genetic diversity among the isolates. A majority of the 148 isolates (136 or 92%) were susceptible to each of 16 antimicrobials tested. Isolation of S. Enteritidis from FSIS-regulated products emphasizes the need for continued consumer education on proper food handling and cooking practices, and continued work to decrease the prevalence of Salmonella in meat, poultry, and pasteurized egg products. These data are necessary to enable a more informed debate among scientists, commodity groups, government regulators, and animal industry personnel on the feasibility and likely efficacy of differentiating between Salmonella and as a means to reduce the incidence of animal and human salmonellosis.

Technical Abstract: The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) tests for Salmonella in meat, poultry, and egg products through three regulatory testing programs: the Pathogen Reduction/Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (PR/HACCP) program, the ready-to-eat (RTE) program for meat and poultry products, and the pasteurized egg products program. From 1998 to 2003, 293,938 samples collected through these testing programs were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella enterica species. Of these, 12,699 (4.3%) were positive for Salmonella and 167 (1.3% of 12,699 Salmonella isolates or 0.06% of all (n=293,938) samples) were S. Enteritidis. The highest rate of S. Enteritidis was observed in ground chicken PR/HACCP samples (8/1,722 samples, 0.46%); the lowest in steer/heifer PR/HACCP samples (0/12,835 samples). Salmonella Enteritidis isolates were characterized by phage type, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern, and antimicrobial susceptibility. Phage typing of 94 S. Enteritidis isolates identified PT13 (39 isolates) and PT8 (36 isolates) as the dominant phage types. One isolate from an RTE ham product was characterized as PT4. PFGE analysis of 148 S. Enteritidis isolates indicated genetic diversity among the isolates, with 28 unique XbaI PFGE patterns identified. Of the 148 isolates, 136 (92%) were susceptible to each of 16 antimicrobials tested. Two isolates were resistant to ampicillin alone, while 10 isolates were resistant to 2 or more antimicrobials. Isolation of S. Enteritidis from FSIS-regulated products emphasizes the need for continued consumer education on proper food handling and cooking practices, and continued work to decrease the prevalence of Salmonella in meat, poultry, and pasteurized egg products.

Last Modified: 12/18/2014
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