IPM-BASED STRATEGIES FOR BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF GREENHOUSE AND VEGETABLE CROP PESTS
Location: Biological Integrated Pest Management Unit
Title: Mycoinsecticides: comprehensive list and current status
Submitted to: Invertebrate Pathology International Colloquium Proceedings
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: May 15, 2006
Publication Date: August 27, 2006
Citation: Faria, M.R., Wraight, S.P. 2006. Mycoinsecticides: comprehensive list and current status [abstract]. Proceedings of the 9th International Colloquium on Invertebrate Pathology and Microbial Control. Society for Invertebrate Pathology. 9:75.
This study aimed to assemble a comprehensive list of mycoinsecticides developed worldwide. A variety of sources, including scientific publications, personal communications, and websites from manufacturers and regulatory agencies, was accessed. During the last four decades, ca. 80 companies worldwide developed and/or manufactured 144 mycoinsecticides. Among these, 66.7% are currently registered, under registration, or marketed (in some cases without registration), 16.7% are no longer available, and the status of 16.7% of products could not be determined. To date, at least 13 species or subspecies of fungi have been employed as active ingredients of mycoinsecticides, the most common being Metarhizium anisopliae (53 products), Beauveria bassiana (46), Lecanicillium spp. (11), Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (8), and Beauveria brongniartii (7). Targets are distributed among 9 orders, mainly in Hemiptera (59.0%), Coleoptera (42.4%), Lepidoptera (20.1%), Thysanoptera (14.6%), Orthoptera (10.4%), and Acari (13.9%). South American products represent 47.9% of all developed mycoinsecticides, followed by USA (16.7%), Central America and Mexico (14.6%), Europe (11.1%), Asia (4.9%), Oceania (2.8%), and Africa (2.1%). Although the formulation type could not be determined for 31.3% of products, and despite conflicting data and lack of standardization, at least 12 different formulation types were identified. The most common formulation types were technical concentrates - used for preparation of formulations, but in many countries used as the end-product and sometimes referred to as fungus-colonized substrates (29.2%), wettable powders (16.0%), and suspensions based on emulsifiable oils (11.1%).