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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Upregulation of Oxidative Burst and Degranulation in Chicken Heterophilis Stimulated with Probiotic Bacteria

Authors
item Farnell, Morgan - TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY
item Donoghue, Ann
item Fausto, Del Los Santos - UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS
item Blore, Pam - UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS
item Hargis, Billy - UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS
item Tellez, G. - UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS
item Donoghue, Dan - UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS

Submitted to: Poultry Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: July 12, 2006
Publication Date: November 1, 2006
Citation: Farnell, M.B., Donoghue, A.M., Fausto, D., Blore, P.J., Hargis, B.M., Tellez, G.I., Donoghue, D.J. 2006. Upregulation of oxidative burst and degranulation in chicken heterophilis stimulated with probiotic bacteria. Poultry Science. 85:1900-1906.

Interpretive Summary: The immune system of neonatal chicks is functionally immature during the first week of life. Researchers have previously demonstrated that the avian humoral response can be increased through the use of probiotics. Although the humoral response provides the chick with an effective mechanism to combat pathogens, sufficient antibody titers are not attained until 7 to 10 d post infection. However, the innate immune system (i.e. heterophils) can respond much more quickly to pathogens. The objective of this study was to determine if probiotic bacteria can also up regulate heterophil function. Heterophils were isolated from the peripheral blood of neonatal chickens by using a discontinuous density gradient. Oxidative burst and degranulation are bactericidal mechanisms used by heterophils to kill pathogens and were used in this study as indicators of heterophil function. We found that each of the 10 probiotic isolates tested, were capable of heterophil oxidative burst and degranulation when compared to unstimulated controls. These data suggest that probiotic bacteria can significantly improve heterophil oxidative burst and degranulation in broilers. To our knowledge this is the first study demonstrating a relationship between probiotics and avian heterophil function.

Technical Abstract: The immune system of neonatal chicks is functionally immature during the first week of life. Researchers have previously demonstrated that the avian humoral response can be increased through the use of probiotics. Although the humoral response provides the chick with an effective mechanism to combat pathogens, sufficient antibody titers are not attained until 7 to 10 d post infection. However, the innate immune system (i.e. heterophils) can respond much more quickly to pathogens. The objective of this study was to determine if probiotic bacteria can also up regulate heterophil function. Heterophils were isolated from the peripheral blood of neonatal chickens by using a discontinuous density gradient. Oxidative burst and degranulation are bactericidal mechanisms used by heterophils to kill pathogens and were used in this study as indicators of heterophil function. We found that each of the 10 probiotic isolates (designated G1-11) tested, in vitro, were capable of increasing heterophil oxidative burst and degranulation when compared to unstimulated controls. Bacillus subtilis (G3), Lactococcus lactis lactis (G6) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (G8) isolates were determined to elicit the greatest immune response in vitro and were subsequently fed to chicks. Phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or one of these three probiotic isolates resuspended in PBS was administered by oral gavage on the day of hatch. Heterophils were isolated from chicks from each of these four treatment groups 24 h post treatment. Significant increases in heterophil degranulation and oxidative burst were observed with the G3, G6 and G8 treated chicks when compared to heterophils isolated from birds with no probiotic treatment. These data suggest that probiotic bacteria can significantly improve heterophil oxidative burst and degranulation in broilers. To our knowledge this is the first study demonstrating a relationship between probiotics and avian heterophil function.

Last Modified: 7/24/2014
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