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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: CONSERVATION SYSTEMS RESEARCH FOR IMPROVING ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND PRODUCER PROFITABILITY

Location: National Soil Dynamics Laboratory

Title: Weed Control in Peanut Grown in a High-Residue Conservation-Tillage System

Authors
item PRICE, ANDREW
item Reeves, Donald
item Patterson, M - AUBURN UNIVERSITY
item Gamble, B -
item BALKCOM, KIPLING
item Arriaga, Francisco
item Monks, D -

Submitted to: Peanut Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: October 5, 2006
Publication Date: January 1, 2007
Citation: Price, A.J., Reeves, D.W., Patterson, M.G., Gamble, B.E., Balkcom, K.S., Arriaga, F.J., Monks, D. 2007. Weed control in peanut grown in a high-residue conservation-tillage system. Peanut Science. Peanut Science. 34:59-64.

Interpretive Summary: Black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.), rye (Secale cereale L.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were evaluated for their weed-suppressive characteristics compared to a winter fallow system. Three herbicide systems were utilized: no herbicide, preemergence (PRE) herbicides plus postemergence (POST) herbicides, and PRE plus sequential POST herbicides. No cover crop was effective in controlling weeds without a herbicide program. Rye and black oat provided more effective weed control than wheat in conservation-tillage peanut. High residue systems using black oat or rye cover crops have potential to increase peanut productivity and reduce herbicide inputs for peanuts grown in the Southeast.

Technical Abstract: Information is needed on the role of cover crops as a weed control alternative due to the increase in adoption of conservation-tillage in peanut production. Field experiments were conducted from fall 1994 through fall 1997 in Alabama to evaluate three winter cereal cover crops in a high-residue conservation-tillage peanut production system. Black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.), rye (Secale cereale L.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were evaluated for their weed-suppressive characteristics compared to a winter fallow system. Three herbicide systems were utilized: no herbicide, preemergence (PRE) herbicides plus postemergence (POST) herbicides, and PRE plus sequential POST herbicides. The PRE plus POST herbicide input system consisted of pendimethalin at 1.12 kg ai/ha plus an additional early POST application of paraquat at 0.14 kg ai/ha plus bentazon at 0.56 kg ai/ha. The PRE plus sequential POST herbicide input system contained the aforementioned herbicides plus 2,4-DB at 0.22 kg ai/ha plus chlorimuron at 0.14 kg ai/ha applied late POST. No cover crop was effective in controlling weeds without a herbicide program. However, when black oat or rye was utilized with PRE plus POST herbicides, weed control was similar to the high input system. Rye and black oat provided more effective weed control than wheat in conservation-tillage peanut. There was a strong yield benefit for planting conservation-tilled peanut using the Brazilian cover crop management system; i.e., cover crops grown to produce large amounts (>4,480 kg/ha) of residue and then rolled to form a dense mat on the soil surface. The winter fallow, high herbicide input system yielded numerically less peanut all three years compared to the highest yielding system that included a winter cover crop. The Brazilian system using black oat or rye cover crops has potential to increase peanut productivity and reduce herbicide inputs for peanuts grown in the Southeast.

Last Modified: 7/25/2014
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