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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: PROTOZOAN PARASITES AFFECTING FOOD ANIMALS, FOOD SAFETY, AND PUBLIC HEALTH Title: Emerging Food- and Waterborne Protozoan Diseases

Authors
item Arrowood, Michael - CDC, ATLANTA, GA
item Ortega, Ynes - UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA
item Xiao, Lihua - CDC, ATLANTA, GA
item FAYER, RONALD

Submitted to: Emerging Infections 7
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: August 15, 2006
Publication Date: October 30, 2006
Citation: Arrowood, M.J., Ortega, Y.R., Xiao, L.X., Fayer, R. 2006. Emerging Infections 7: Emerging Food- and Waterborne Protozoan Diseases. In: Scheld, W.M, Hooper, D.C., Hughes, J.M, editors. Emerging Diseases. 7th edition. Washington, D.C.:ASM Press. p. 283-308.

Interpretive Summary: Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora and Toxoplasma are related protozoan parasites that have been transmitted to humans worldwide through ingestion of contaminated food and drinking water. All cause serious or life threatening disease in immunologically normal and in immunocompromised persons. This chapter reviews the biology, clinical signs of infection, epidemiology, laboratory detection methods, treatment, and presents lists of outbreaks caused by transmission via drinking water, recreational water, and food.

Technical Abstract: Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora and Toxoplasma are related apicomplexan parasites transmitted to humans worldwide through ingestion of contaminated food and drinking water. Of 15 species of Cryptosporidium- C parvum, C. hominis, C and C. meleagridis are the most prevalent infections in humans and the latter two are considered zoonotic. The is one species of Cyclospora infectious for humans and no animal hosts have been found. Toxoplasma has felids as the definitive hosts but virtually all vertebrates can be infected and raw or undercooked meat from any infected animal can infect humans. All cause serious or life threatening disease in immunologically normal and in immunocompromised persons. This chapter reviews the biology, clinical signs of infection, epidemiology, laboratory detection methods, treatment, and presents lists of outbreaks caused by transmission via drinking water, recreational water, and food.

Last Modified: 7/28/2014
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