POSTHARVEST TREATMENT OF TROPICAL COMMODITIES FOR QUARANTINE SECURITY, QUALITY MAINTENANCE, AND VALUE ENHANCEMENT
Location: Tropical Crop and Commodity Protection Research
Title: VITAMIN AND MINERAL CONTENT OF TROPICAL FRUIT CULTIVARS GROWN IN HAWAII
Submitted to: National Nutrient Databank Conference
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: June 27, 2006
Publication Date: September 18, 2006
Citation: Wall, M.M. 2006. Vitamin and mineral content of tropical fruit cultivars grown in Hawaii. 30th National Nutrient Databank Conference, Honolulu, HI. Abstract booklet.
Banana (Musa sp.), papaya (Carica papaya), longan (Dimocarpus longan), lychee (Litchi chinensis), and rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) cultivars were harvested from different locations throughout Hawaii and analyzed for vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and mineral content. Bananas and papayas also were analyzed for provitamin A ( beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin) content. Dwarf Brazilian (“apple”) bananas had almost three times more vitamin C (12.70 mg/100 g fresh weight) and 1.5 times more provitamin A (12.44 micrograms RAE/100 g) than Williams fruit (4.45 mg/100 g and 8.15 micrograms RAE/100 g). Dwarf Brazilian bananas had higher P, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Zn contents than Williams fruit. The average K content for Hawaii’s bananas was 330.6 mg/100 g. Papaya vitamin C content was 51.2 mg/100g, with no differences among cultivars. Provitamin A content for papayas averaged 44.1 micrograms RAE/100 g, and ranged from 18.7 to 74.0 micrograms RAE/100 g. Lycopene was not detected in the yellow-fleshed cultivars, Kapoho, Laie Gold, and Rainbow, but the red-fleshed Sunrise and SunUp contained 1350 to 3674 micrograms lycopene per 100 g. Papayas (100 g) contained 9% of the DRI for Cu, 6-8% of the DRI for Mg, but less than 3% of the DRI for other minerals. Longan fruit had the highest vitamin C content (60.1 mg/100 g) among the specialty fruit tested. Average ascorbic acid content was 27.6 mg/100 g for lychees and 36.4 mg/100 g for rambutans. Vitamin C content was 63.3 mg/100g and 55.3 mg/100 g for the longan cultivars, Biew Kiew and Sri Chompoo, respectively. The early maturing lychee cultivar, Kaimana, had an average ascorbic acid content of 33.2 mg/100 g, and the later maturing, Groff and Bosworth-3, cultivars had 21.2 and 22.5 mg/100 g, respectively. For rambutans, vitamin C content ranged from 22.0 to 47.8 mg/100 g for the six cultivars tested. Longans were a good source of K (324.9 mg/100 g) and Cu (0.26 mg/100 g). Consumption of lychee fruit (100 g) would meet 2-4% of the DRI for six minerals (P, K, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn), and 22% of the DRI for Cu. Rambutan fruit had 20% of the DRI for Cu and 8-10% of the DRI for Mn.