Submitted to: Plant Disease
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: September 26, 2006
Publication Date: March 1, 2007
Citation: Adkins, S.T., Kamenova, I., Rosskopf, E.N., Lewandowski, D. 2007. Identification and characterization of a novel tobamovirus from tropical soda apple in Florida. Plant Disease. 91:287-293. Interpretive Summary: This is the first report of a novel tobamovirus species, Tropical soda apple mosaic virus (TSAMV), infecting tropical soda apple in Florida. A description of the symptoms caused and biological and molecular characterization of the virus, including diagnostic methods and seed transmission, are described. This report continues a cooperative research effort between ARS and the Ohio State University. It also provides a timely account of this new virus and its potential to cause economic losses in solanaceous vegetable crops (as pepper and tomato) to growers, Extension personnel and state and Federal regulatory and research scientists.
Technical Abstract: Foliar symptoms suggestive of virus infection were recently observed on the noxious weed, tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum), in Florida. An agent was mechanically transmitted to Nicotiana benthamiana and virions were isolated from systemically infected leaves. Rod-shaped particles ~300 nm in length were observed in the partially purified preparations by electron microscopy. The host range determined by mechanical inoculation with purified virions included all tested plants in the Solanaceae (16 species including the important vegetable crops, pepper and tomato) and Chenopodiaceae (2 species) but excluded all tested plants in the Amaranthaceae, Apocynaceae, Brassicaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Malvaceae and Tropaeolaceae, including several common virus indicator hosts. Comparisons of the coat and movement protein sequences of this putative tobamovirus with recognized members of this genus, indicate that it is a novel tobamovirus sharing most identity with Pepper mild mottle virus and other members of the solanaceous-infecting subgroup of tobamoviruses. The virus, for which the name Tropical soda apple mosaic virus (TSAMV) is proposed, was found to be widespread in tropical soda apple in peninsular Florida during an initial survey. TSAMV contamination of tropical soda apple seed from infected plants was observed suggesting that seed transmission may be important for TSAMV dissemination and epidemiology.