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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: CONTROL OF FUSARIUM MYCOTOXINS IN CORN, WHEAT, AND BARLEY

Location: Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens & Mycology Research Unit

Title: Emerging Mycotoxin Issues

Authors
item McCormick, Susan
item Desjardins, Anne

Submitted to: Corn Dry Milling Conference Proceedings
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: June 1, 2006
Publication Date: June 1, 2006
Citation: Mc Cormick, S.P., Desjardins, A.E. 2006. Emerging mycotoxin issues [abstract]. 47th Annual Corn Dry Milling Conference. p. 10.

Technical Abstract: The fungus Fusarium graminearum contaminates cereal grain with 8-keto trichothecene mycotoxins, mainly nivalenol and 4-deoxynivalenol. In most animal studies to date, nivalenol has proven more toxic than deoxynivalenol, and is thus of added concern for food safety. DNA sequence analysis indicates that nivalenol is the ancestral trait, and that deoxynivalenol-production in F. graminearum evolved by point mutations and deletions in the cytochrome P450 that is responsible for C4-oxygenation. Limited surveys to date indicate that nivalenol contaminates grain worldwide, but it is rare in North America, where deoxynivalenol-producing populations are now dominant. However, nivalenol producers have been recently reported from Louisiana. Deoxynivalenol producers appear to have a selective advantage over nivalenol producers on wheat. Effective risk management of nivalenol requires development and application of improved methods to monitor this mycotoxin in grain. Risk management of nivalenol is also affected by the complex genetic structure of F. graminearum populations, which are known to be highly variable on a worldwide basis with regard to patterns of trichothecene production, and virulence on maize, wheat, and other cereal crops.

Last Modified: 8/1/2014
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