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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETICS OF FUNGI TO ENHANCE FOOD SAFETY AND FOOD SECURITY Title: Reconstructing the Early Evolution of Fungi Using a Six-Gene Phylogeny

Authors
item James, Timothy - DUKE UNIV, DURHAM NC
item Kauff, Frank - DUKE UNIV, DURHAM NC
item Schoch, Conrad - OR ST UNIV, CORVALLIS OR
item Matheny, Brandon - CLARK UNIV, WORCESTER MA
item Hofstetter, Valerie - DUKE UNIV, DURHAM NC
item Cox, Cymon - NTRL HISTY MUSEUM LONDON
item Celio, Gail - UNIV OF MN, ST PAUL MN
item Guiedan, Cecile - DUKE UNIV, DURHAM NC
item Fraker, Emily - DUKE UNIV, DURHAM NC
item Miadlikowska, Jolanta - DUKE UNIV, DURHAM NC
item Lumbsh, Thorsten - FLD MUSEUM NTRL HIST IL
item Rauhut, Alexandra - FACHBEREICH BIO GERMANY
item Reeb, Valerie - DUKE UNIV, DURHAM NC
item Arnold, A. Elizabeth - UNIV OF AZ, TUCSON AZ
item Amtoft, Anja - NY BTNCL GRDN, BRONX NY
item Stajich, Jason - DUKE UNIV, DURHAM NC
item Hosaka, Kentaro - FIELD MUSEUM, CHICAGO IL
item Sung, Gi-Ho - OR ST UNIV, CORVALLIS OR
item Johnson, Desiree - OR ST UNIV, CORVALLIS OR
item O'Rourke, Ben - OR ST UNIV, CORVALLIS OR
item Crockett, Michael - OR ST UNIV, CORVALLIS, OR
item Binder, Manfred - CLARK UNIV, WORCESTER MA
item Curtis, Judd - CLARK UNIV, WORCESTER MA
item Slot, Jason - CLARK UNIV, WORCESTER MA
item Wang, Zheng - UNIV OF IA, IOWA CITY IA
item Wilson, Andrew - CLARK UNIV, WORCESTER MA
item Schueller, Arthur - INST OF BOTANY, GERMANY
item Longcore, Joyce - UNIV OF ME, ORONO ME
item O`donnell, Kerry
item Mozley-Standridge, Sharon - UNIV OF GA, ATHENS GA
item Porter, David - UNIV OF GA, ATHENS GA
item Letcher, Peter - UNIV OF AL, TUSCALOOSA AL
item Powell, Martha - UNIV OF AL, TUSCALOOSA AL
item Taylor, John - UNIV OF CA, BERKELEY CA
item White, Merlin - UNIV OF KS, LAWRENCE KS
item Griffith, Gareth - UNIV OF WALES
item Davies, Daivd - IGER, ABERYSWYTH WALES
item Humber, Richard
item Morton, Joseph - WV UNIV, MORGANTOWN WV
item Sugiyama, Junta - TECHNOSURUGA CO, JAPAN
item Vacant, Rl,
item Rogers, Jack - WA ST UNIV, PULLMAN WA
item Pfister, Don - HARVARD UNIV,CAMBRIDGE MA
item Hewitt, David - HARVARD UNIV,CAMBRIDGE MA
item Hansen, Karen - HARVARD UNIV,CAMBRIDGE MA
item Hambleton, Sarah - AG & AGRI-FOOD CANADA
item Shoemaker, Robert - AG & AGRI-FOOD CANADA
item Kohlmeyer, Jan - UNIV OF NC, MOREHEAD CITY
item Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, Brigitte - UNIV OF NC, MOREHEAD CITY
item Spotts, Robert - OR ST UNIV, HOOD RVR OR
item Serdani, Maryna - OR ST UNIV, HOOD RVR OR
item Crous, Pedro - CBS, UTRECHT NETHERLANDS
item Hughes, Karen - UNIV OF TN, KNOXVILLE TN
item Matsuura, Kenji - OKAYAMA UNIV, JAPAN
item Langer, Ewald - UNIV KASSEL, GERMANY
item Langer, Gitta - UNIV KASSEL, GERMANY
item Untereiner, Wendy - BRANDON UNIV, CANADA
item Lucking, Robert - FLD MUSEUM NTRL HIST, IL
item Budel, Burkhard - FACHBEREICH BIO, GERMANY
item Geiser, David - PENN ST UNIV,UNIV PARK PA
item Aptroot, David - ABL, SOEST NETHERLANDS
item Diederich, Paul - NATL NTRL HIST MUSEUM,FR
item Schmitt, Imke - FLD MUSEUM NTRL HIST, IL
item Schultz, Matthias - UNIV HAMBURG, GERMANY
item Yahr, Rebecca - UNIV ST ANDREWS, UK
item Hibbett, David - CLARK UNIV, WORCESTER MA
item Lutzoni, Francois - DUKE UNIV, DURHAM NC
item Mclaughlin, David - UNIV OF MN, ST PAUL MN
item Spatafora, Joey - OR ST UNIV, CORVALLIS OR
item Vilgalys, Rytas - DUKE UNIV, DURHAM NC

Submitted to: Nature
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: September 3, 2006
Publication Date: October 19, 2006
Citation: James, T.Y., Kauff, F., Schoch, C., Matheny, B., Hofstetter, V., Cox, C.J., Celio, G., Guiedan, C., Fraker, E., Miadlikowska, J., Lumbsh, T., Rauhut, A., Reeb, V., Arnold, A., Amtoft, A., Stajich, J.E., Hosaka, K., Sung, G., Johnson, D., O'Rourke, B., Crockett, M., Binder, M., Curtis, J.M., Slot, J.C., Wang, Z., Wilson, A.W., Schueller, A., Longcore, J.E., O Donnell, K., Mozley-Standridge, S., Porter, D., Letcher, P.M., Powell, M.J., Taylor, J.W., White, M.M., Griffith, G.W., Davies, D.R., Humber, R.A., Morton, J.B., Sugiyama, J., Rossman, A.Y., Rogers, J.D., Pfister, D.H., Hewitt, D., Hansen, K., Hambleton, S., Shoemaker, R.A., Kohlmeyer, J., Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, B., Spotts, R.A., Serdani, M., Crous, P.W., Hughes, K.W., Matsuura, K., Langer, E., Langer, G., Untereiner, W.A., Lucking, R., Budel, B., Geiser, D.M., Aptroot, D.M., Diederich, P., Schmitt, I., Schultz, M., Yahr, R., Hibbett, D.S., Lutzoni, F., Mclaughlin, D.J., Spatafora, J.W., Vilgalys, R. 2006. Reconstructing the early evolution of Fungi using a six-gene phylogeny. Nature. 443:818-822.

Interpretive Summary: In order to better understand the origin and evolutionary diversification of the true Fungi, we developed phylogenetic hypotheses for the fungi using data from six gene regions and nearly 200 species. Although all current classifications for the Fungi assume that the swimming flagellated Fungi called chytrids form an early-diverging natural group of Fungi, and imply that there was a single loss of the flagellum leading to the diversification of terrestrial Fungi, our results suggest that there have been at least three independent losses of the flagellum in the Fungi. The losses of swimming spores appeared to have coincided with the evolution of novel mechanisms of spore dispersal such as aerial dispersal in the Microsporidia, an enigmatic group of unicellular organisms that lack subcellular organelles called mitochondria. One of the major findings of this study suggests that the Microsporidia may be derived from a parasitic chytrid early in the evolution of the Fungi. Results of these basic studies will benefit agricultural scientists in that the predictive power of the robust phylogenetic framework will enable them to predict the biotechnological properties of novel fungi as they are discovered and characterized for the benefit of humankind.

Technical Abstract: The ancestors of fungi are believed to be simple aquatic forms with flagellated spores, similar to modern-day Chytridiomycete fungi (chytrids). Current classifications for the fungi assume that the chytrids form an early-diverging clade of Fungi, and imply that there was a single loss of the flagellum leading to the diversification of terrestrial fungi. Here we develop phylogenetic hypotheses for the fungi using data from six gene regions and nearly 200 species. Our results suggest that there have been at least three independent losses of the flagellum in the Fungi. The losses of swimming spores have coincided with the evolution of novel mechanisms of spore dispersal, such as aerial dispersal and polar tube eversion in the Microsporidia, which are unicellular forms that lack mitochondria. Our results suggest that the Microsporidia may be derived from an endoparasitic chytridiomycete similar to Rozella allomycis, on the earliest diverging branch on the Fungal tree.

Last Modified: 11/27/2014
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