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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Changes in Fruit, Vegetable and Milk Consumption among a Cohort of 5th Graders Are Related to Self-Efficacy and Norms

item Thompson, Victoria - USDA/ARS/CNRC
item Cullen, Karen
item Watson, Kathleen

Submitted to: Journal Of The American Dietetic Association
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: April 1, 2005
Publication Date: August 1, 2005
Citation: Thompson, V.J., Bachman, C.M., Cullen, K.W., Watson, K. 2005. Changes in fruit, vegetable and milk consumption among a cohort of 5th graders are related to self-efficacy and norms [abstract]. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 105(8):A-24(Suppl. 1).

Technical Abstract: Identifying and understanding factors that influence FVM consumption are necessary for the development of effective interventions designed to increase FVM consumption. Although one serving each of FVM is included in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP), meal consumption of FVM declines with age, even in the school environment. Fifth graders from one middle school in south Texas completed lunch food records and a psychosocial questionnaire measuring school lunch fruit and vegetable self-efficacy and norms in the fall and spring semesters of two school years. Associations between longitudinal fruit, vegetable and milk (FVM) intake and self-efficacy and norms were tested with general linear models. Multiple analyses of variance (MANOVA) tested psychosocial influences of changes in FVM intake over four time periods. Statistically significant associations between self-efficacy and norms and fruit, high fat vegetable, milk, and sweetened beverages were found. The increase in self-efficacy for consuming fruit from the snack bar was related to the increase in fruit consumption (p<.01). The increased consumption of high fat vegetables was related to the increase in vegetable self-efficacy (p<.01) and FV norms (p<.01). The change in milk consumption was not related to milk self-efficacy or milk norms. Results suggest self-efficacy and norms may influence FVM consumption in children. Eating patterns were similar over the two-year period, suggesting the importance of establishing healthy eating habits early.

Last Modified: 4/19/2015